Microbiology UTI Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Microbiology UTI Deck (50):
1

What bacteria is normally in the kidney?

None.
Ureter and bladder should also be sterile

2

What kind of bacteria inhabit the urethra?

Coliforms and enterococci

3

What is a lower UTI?

Confined to the bladder

4

What is an upper UTI?

Involves ureters/ kidneys

5

What is the name for an upper UTI?

Pyelonephritis

6

True or False
The presence of bacteria in the urinary tract is the definition of a UTI

False.
Only if causes symptoms.

7

What is a complicated UTI?

Systemic sepsis
Stones
Structural abnormality

8

Why does bacteruria not mean infection?

Only infection if symptomatic.
Bacteria in urine common due to bacteria at urethra

9

What is cystitis?

Inflammation of the bladder.
Not always an infection

10

Who tends to get UTI?

Women
Pregnancy
Sexual activity
Catheterised
Abnormal urinary tracts

11

Why does pregnancy cause UTI?

Incomplete bladder emptying causes stasis and encourages infection.
Urethra also more dilated

12

Where does bacteria in UTI come from?

Bacteria from bowel gets onto perineal skin and into lower end of urethra

13

Which bacteria are most common?

E Coli
Klebsiella
Enterobacter
Proteus

14

What is special about Proteus sp.?

Associated with calculi.
Foul smelling

15

Which organism is common in women of child bearing age?

Staph saphrophyticus

16

What bacteria is associated with catheters and instrumentation?

Pseudomonas

17

What abx is given for pseudomonas?

Ciprofloxacin

18

Which symptoms are associated with upper urinary tract infection?

Fever
Rigors
Loin pain

19

What is the issue with giving ciprofloxacin?

Precipitates C diff

20

What is MSSU?

Mid stream specimen of urine

21

How is a MSSU carried out?

Wash perineum with sterile saline
First urine to be passed into toilet
Second urine to be collected
Last urine to toilet

22

Why would you not use antiseptic before an MSSU?

May inhibit bacteria

23

What is a clean catch urine?

Nurse tries to catch mid stream.
Common in children or in elderly

24

When is bag urine used?

In babies.
Useful for negative culturing

25

When is suprapubic aspiration used?

Babies

26

How should a catheter specimen be taken?

Aspirated from catheter ports and not from the bag itself

27

What colour of container should be used for urine specimen?

Red topped

28

Why is it important to get the sample to the lab asap?

Bacteria multiply rapidly!

29

Why can an absence of nitrites not rule out an UTI?

Enterococci do not give a positive test

30

What does a mixed organism growth mean?

Not significant.
Likely to get a single bacteraemia.

31

How many bacteria are required to be significant?

10 to the power of 5

32

What are ESBL producing bacteria?

Extended spectrum beta lactamase

33

What does ESBL do?

Breaks down the beta lactam rings.
Resistance to many abx

34

True or False
ESBL is a hospital acquired issue

False.
From community.

35

What is CPE?

Carbapenemase producing enterobacteriaecae

36

What is the problem with CPE?

Resistant to meropenum, basically all abx.
Spreads easily

37

Where did CPE come from?

India

38

How long should an abx course last for?

3 days for LUTI in women

39

What is the firstline abx for UTI?

Amoxicillin
Trimethoprim
Nitrofurantoin

40

What is given empirically for UTI?

Trimethoprim

41

Why is amoxicillin not given empirically?

Not always effective

42

Why is trimethoprim not given in 1st trimester?

Inhibits folic acid synthesis

43

Why is nitrofurantoin not given empirically?

Only in uncomplicated LUTI
Not in pregnancy, breastfeeding or young children

44

When is gentamicin given for UTI?

In hospital

45

What is the limitations of gentamicin when given?

3 days only
Not in pregnancy
Can cause deafness

46

When is temocillin given?

In hospital
When renal function is too poor for gentamicin
For Coliforms

47

What is given for LUTI in men?

Trimethoprim 7 days

48

What is given for LUTI in men?

Trimethoprim 3 days

49

What is given for pyelonephritis?

Co-trimaxozole or co-amoxiclac 14 days

50

Asymptomatic bacteruria is not treated, except when?

In pregnancy.
Causes IUGR