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Flashcards in History Final Flash Cards Deck (62):
1

Old Regime

the social and political system of France in the 1770s in which people were divided into three large social classes

2

First Estate

estate that was formed by the clergy of the Roman Catholic Church; had access to high offices and exemptions from paying taxes

3

Second Estate

estate that was made up of rich nobles; owned 20 percent of the land in France and paid almost no taxes

4

Third Estate

estate formed by the middle class, the workers, and the peasant farmers; resented the First and Second Estates

5

Fourth Estate

a societal or political force or institution whose influence is not consistently or officially recognized

6

Bourgeoisie, Workers, Peasants

three groups that made up the Third Estate

7

Bourgeoisie

term for the middle class

8

Louis XVI

king of France whose excessive spending caused France's government to sink deeply into debt; a very weak leader

9

Marie Antoinette

queen who often interfered with government matters and gave king bad advice; very unpopular among the French

10

Estates-General

an assembly of representatives from all three estates that met to approve a tax on the nobility

11

Voting Problems

these occurred during the meeting of the estates-general

12

National Assembly

in a speech, Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès suggested that the Third Estate name themselves this and pass laws and reforms in the name of the French people

13

Tennis Court Oath

after delegates of the Third Estate broke down a door, they made this pledge to stay there until they had drawn out a new constitution

14

Jul 14, 1789

date on which a mob stormed Bastille, a Paris prison

15

Bastille

Paris prison that was stormed by a mob searching for gunpowder on July 14, 1789

16

Great Fear

wave of senseless panic that rolled through France after it was suggested that nobles were hiring outlaws to terrorize the peasants

17

Imperialism

The domination by one country over another country. In the "new" imperialism, countries were looking for raw materials for industry (rubber, oil, tin) and markets to sell goods.

18

Racism

The belief that race determines traits and capabilities.

19

Social Darwinism

The application of Charles Darwin's ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies--particularly as justification for imperial expansion

20

Boer

A Dutch colonist of South Africa

Dutch people (farmers), who settled in South Africa. They believed they were superior to native Africans. They went to war with the British and Zulus.

21

Assimilation

A policy in which a nation forces or encourages a subject people to adopt its institution and customs.

22

Paternalism

the policy or practice on the part of people in positions of authority of restricting the freedom and responsibilities of those subordinate to them in the subordinates' supposed best interest.

23

blockade

a war measure that isolates some area of importance to the enemy

24

Continental System

Napoleon's efforts to block foreign trade with England by forbidding Importation of British goods Into Europe.

25

guerrilla

a member of an irregular armed force that fights a stronger force by sabotage and harassment

26

Peninsular War

This war was the beginning of the end of Napoleon's Grand Empire after the Spanish rebelled against France for its independence

27

scorched-earth policy

a military strategy or operational method which involves destroying anything that might be useful to the enemy while advancing

28

Waterloo

The site of Napoleon's defeat by British and Prussian armies in 1815, which ended his last bid for power

29

Hundred Days

The brief period during 1815 when Napoleon made his last bid for power, deposing the French King and again becoming Emperor of France

30

Congress of Vienna

Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon I. (p. 594)

31

Klemens von Metternich

This was Austria's foreign minister who wanted a balance of power in an international equilibrium of political and military forces that would discourage aggression

32

balance of power

an equilibrium of power between nations

33

legitimacy

undisputed credibility

34

Holy Alliance

a league of European nations formed by the leaders of Russia, Austria, and Prussia after the congress of Vienna

35

Concert of Europe

a series of alliances among European nations in the 19th century, devised by Prince Klemens von Metternich to prevent the outbreak of revolutions

36

The Communist Manifesto

a political pamphlet published by Karl Marx and Friederich Engels which explained their economic theory which distributed wealth and social status evenly.

37

bourgeoisie

in Communist theory, the wealthier class, the owners of factories, buildings, and properties.

38

socialism

a cross between capitalism and communism where the government manages basic needs (housing, health care), but private citizens may still own property.

39

tsar

The monarchic ruler of Russia; based on the word "caesar"

40

proletariat

in Communist theory, the working class, which makes up most of society

41

totalitarian

the bulk of the power is placed in the hands of a single ruler or dictator

42

communism

an economic system where wealth is distributed evenly to everybody

43

centralized or planned economy

the government controls all aspects of a countries monetary activities

44

capital

factories, buildings, property, money

45

capitalism

people compete to make money

46

exported goods

goods that are made in the United States but sold outside the United States

47

imported goods

good which are made outside of the United States but sold inside the United States

48

domestic goods

good which are made in the United States and sold in the United States

49

The support of the Russian people

what allowed the Bolsheviks to take over the Russia government?`

50

become a major industrial power

Stalin set up a series of Fire-Year Plans in order to?

51

to discourage a German Invasion

Why did the Soviet Union set up a Communist governments in Eastern Europe?

52

military action

How did the Soviet Union respond to Eastern European demands for change?

53

completely control citizens lives

In a totalitarian states, leaders attempt to?

54

stop communism's spread

The US policy of containment was meant to?

55

Fight the spread of communism

The Truman Doctrine pledged that the US would?

56

it escalated tension

How did the reagan presidency affect the US relationship with the Soviets?

57

per capita

per person

58

agriculture

intentional farming of crops for profit or food

59

inflation

a decrease in the value of currency

60

suffrage

the legal right to vote

61

infant mortality rate

a rate at which babies perish

62

maternal mortality rate

a rate at which mother perish at childbirth