Flashcards in History Final Flash Cards Deck (62):
the social and political system of France in the 1770s in which people were divided into three large social classes
estate that was formed by the clergy of the Roman Catholic Church; had access to high offices and exemptions from paying taxes
estate that was made up of rich nobles; owned 20 percent of the land in France and paid almost no taxes
estate formed by the middle class, the workers, and the peasant farmers; resented the First and Second Estates
a societal or political force or institution whose influence is not consistently or officially recognized
Bourgeoisie, Workers, Peasants
three groups that made up the Third Estate
term for the middle class
king of France whose excessive spending caused France's government to sink deeply into debt; a very weak leader
queen who often interfered with government matters and gave king bad advice; very unpopular among the French
an assembly of representatives from all three estates that met to approve a tax on the nobility
these occurred during the meeting of the estates-general
in a speech, Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès suggested that the Third Estate name themselves this and pass laws and reforms in the name of the French people
Tennis Court Oath
after delegates of the Third Estate broke down a door, they made this pledge to stay there until they had drawn out a new constitution
Jul 14, 1789
date on which a mob stormed Bastille, a Paris prison
Paris prison that was stormed by a mob searching for gunpowder on July 14, 1789
wave of senseless panic that rolled through France after it was suggested that nobles were hiring outlaws to terrorize the peasants
The domination by one country over another country. In the "new" imperialism, countries were looking for raw materials for industry (rubber, oil, tin) and markets to sell goods.
The belief that race determines traits and capabilities.
The application of Charles Darwin's ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies--particularly as justification for imperial expansion
A Dutch colonist of South Africa
Dutch people (farmers), who settled in South Africa. They believed they were superior to native Africans. They went to war with the British and Zulus.
A policy in which a nation forces or encourages a subject people to adopt its institution and customs.
the policy or practice on the part of people in positions of authority of restricting the freedom and responsibilities of those subordinate to them in the subordinates' supposed best interest.
a war measure that isolates some area of importance to the enemy
Napoleon's efforts to block foreign trade with England by forbidding Importation of British goods Into Europe.
a member of an irregular armed force that fights a stronger force by sabotage and harassment
This war was the beginning of the end of Napoleon's Grand Empire after the Spanish rebelled against France for its independence
a military strategy or operational method which involves destroying anything that might be useful to the enemy while advancing
The site of Napoleon's defeat by British and Prussian armies in 1815, which ended his last bid for power
The brief period during 1815 when Napoleon made his last bid for power, deposing the French King and again becoming Emperor of France
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon I. (p. 594)
Klemens von Metternich
This was Austria's foreign minister who wanted a balance of power in an international equilibrium of political and military forces that would discourage aggression
balance of power
an equilibrium of power between nations
a league of European nations formed by the leaders of Russia, Austria, and Prussia after the congress of Vienna
Concert of Europe
a series of alliances among European nations in the 19th century, devised by Prince Klemens von Metternich to prevent the outbreak of revolutions
The Communist Manifesto
a political pamphlet published by Karl Marx and Friederich Engels which explained their economic theory which distributed wealth and social status evenly.
in Communist theory, the wealthier class, the owners of factories, buildings, and properties.
a cross between capitalism and communism where the government manages basic needs (housing, health care), but private citizens may still own property.
The monarchic ruler of Russia; based on the word "caesar"
in Communist theory, the working class, which makes up most of society
the bulk of the power is placed in the hands of a single ruler or dictator
an economic system where wealth is distributed evenly to everybody
centralized or planned economy
the government controls all aspects of a countries monetary activities
factories, buildings, property, money
people compete to make money
goods that are made in the United States but sold outside the United States
good which are made outside of the United States but sold inside the United States
good which are made in the United States and sold in the United States
The support of the Russian people
what allowed the Bolsheviks to take over the Russia government?`
become a major industrial power
Stalin set up a series of Fire-Year Plans in order to?
to discourage a German Invasion
Why did the Soviet Union set up a Communist governments in Eastern Europe?
How did the Soviet Union respond to Eastern European demands for change?
completely control citizens lives
In a totalitarian states, leaders attempt to?
stop communism's spread
The US policy of containment was meant to?
Fight the spread of communism
The Truman Doctrine pledged that the US would?
it escalated tension
How did the reagan presidency affect the US relationship with the Soviets?
intentional farming of crops for profit or food
a decrease in the value of currency
the legal right to vote
infant mortality rate
a rate at which babies perish