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Northwest Ordinance

Articles of Confederation- weak central government Congress relied on at the time of 1780
Migration to west started to increase
Jefferson divided the territories and declared all of these lands be free of slavery
This proposal was refused by a single vote
Congress' power was questioned over whether the land should be freed and was later a cause of the Civil War



Masters could free slaves by deed or will
Slave masters in Upper South released slaves because of religious views and it was viewed as immoral


Internal slave trade

The westward expansion of cotton production encouraged an internal slave trade.


Absalom Jones

Black Societies
• The earliest black community institutions were mutual aid societies.
• societies were like modern insurance companies and benevolent organizations.
They provided for their members' medical and burial expenses and helped support widows and children.
• Richard Allen and Absalom Jones established the Free African Society in Philadelphia.



a person who favors the abolition of a practice or institution, especially capital punishment or (formerly) slavery.


Fugitive Slave Act

· Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 allowed masters or their agents to pursue slaves across state lines.
• This act did not stop slaves from escaping from Virginia and Maryland to Pennsylvania.


Mutual aid society

Free black communities developed a number of Institutions to help strengthen their communities.
The earliest were mutual aid societies
Black schools were supported by both churches and mutual aid societies


American Colonization Society

American Colonization society- Organization founded in 1816 to promote the migration of African Americans to Africa.
African Americans were given the option to migrate from the United States to establish their own society free from white prejudices.
Migration was impractical because it was expensive, difficult to organize, and involved long negotiations with foreign governments.
In 1787 Hall petitioned the Massachusetts legislature to support efforts by black Bostonians to establish a colony in Africa.
Daniel Coker led the first party of eighty-six African Americans to the new colony of Liberia on the West African coast in 1820.
Paul Cuffe, a sea captain, saw African American colonization in West Africa as a way to end the Atlantic slave trade.


Antislavery society

1. Quakers pushed for abolition in the North, particularly in PA
2. Antislavery societies began to rise in all states except for in the South
3. Most of these groups consisted of whites and black leaders
4. They suggested masters to free slaves instead of encouraging rebellion
5. Abolition was gradual because of this, but was a steady process in the North


3/5 Clause

The Constitution strengthened the political power of slave-holders through the Three Fifths Clause.
Provided that a slave be counted as three-fifths of a free person in determining a state's representation in the House of Representatives in the electoral college.


Free African Society

The earliest black community institutions were mutual aid societies.
societies were like modern insurance companies and benevolent organizations.
They provided for their members' medical and burial expenses and helped support widows and children.


Toussaint Louverture

Toussaint Louverture- leader of the Haitian independence movement. Slave revolts in 1810 and 1811 frightened white southerners and raised hope for freedom among African Americans.
The reason for these slave revolts was to destroy slavery because it denied human rights.
They did not revolt for personal revenge like they did earlier.
Louverture helped lead the enslaved black people of the French sugar colony of Saint Dominque to freedom and independence


Compensated emancipation

Was a method of ending slavery in countries where slavery was legal. This involved the person who was recognized as the owner of a slave being compensated monetarily or by a period of labor or apprenticeship for releasing the slave.


Richard Allen

The First Independent Black Church
The movement for such a church began within the city white-controlled St. George's Methodist Church. The movement's leaders were Richard Allen and Absalom Jones,who could rely on the Free African Society they had established to help them.
The break finally came in 1792 when St. George's white leaders grievously insulted the church's black members. An attempt by white trustees to prevent Jones from praying in what the trustees considered the white section of the church led black members to walk out.
Benjamin Rush, applauded the concept of an independent "African church." Rush and other sympathetic white people contributed to the new church's building fund.
Other black women's organizations in Philadelphia during the early republic included the Benevolent Daughters-established in 1796 by Richard Allen's wife Sarah.


Cotton gin

The United States took the lead in filling the demand for cotton as a result of Eli Whitney's invention of the cotton gin in 1793.
Quick way to remove the seeds from the type of cotton most commonly grown in the South.
Cotton reinvigorated the slave-labor system, which spread rapidly across Georgia and later into Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas


Missouri Compromise

The Federalist and the Republican were the nation's first political parties.
Federalist Party had abolitionist tendencies but they did not raise the slavery issue when they controlled the government in the 1790s.
Missouri Territory- Portion of the Louisiana Territory that applied for admission to the Union in 1819 as a slave trade.
Missouri Compromise- 1820 compromise that permitted Missouri to enter the Union as a slave state and Maine to enter the Union as a free state.



The freeing of slave by his or her master.



Most victims of the slave trade moved on foot in groups called coffles and were chained
or roped together.



Occurring or existing before the American Civil War.


Cotton culture

Most important staple crop
By I860 cotton exports amounted to more than 50 percent annually of the dollar value of all U.S. Exports. Almost 10 times the value of wheat and wheat flour.
Cotton as a crop did not require cultivation as intensive as that needed for tobacco,rice, or sugar. But the Cotton culture was so extensive that cotton planters as a group employed the most slave labor.
Cotton drove the South's economy and its westward expansion.
Cotton plantations employed the bulk of the slave population.


Benign institution

An institution with generally beneficial effects.



During the 1910s southern historian Ulrich B. Phillips portrayed slavery as a benign paternalistic (Paternalism) institution in which Christian slaveholders cared for largely content slaves.
•Phillips argued—as had the slaveholders that they rescued members of an inferior race from African barbarism.


Domestic (internal) slave trade

Domestic Slave Trade- the interstate market for slaves.
Masters in Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and Kentucky sold their slaves as they switched from slave labor to wage labor.
Fear of being resold caused many slaves to escape in the Chesapeake. This caused a vicious circle: masters sold their slaves to prevent their escape and slaves escaped to avoid being sold south.
Traders operated compounds called slave pens.



A social system in which: males hold primary power; males predominate in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property; and, in the domain of the family, fathers or father-figures hold authority over women and children.


Peculiar institution

Historians such as Phillips, who were persuaded by the slaveholders justifications of the peculiar
institution, argued that African Americans were genetically predisposed to being slaves and were therefore content in their status.
In 1959 Stanley M. Elkins changed the debate by arguing that black people were not inherently inferior or submissive. The concentration-camp-like conditions on plantations made them dependent on their masters.