African-American history Chapter 22 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in African-American history Chapter 22 Deck (10):

Define Black Nationalism.

black nationalist tradition: Belief that a separate nation was in the best interests Of African Americans.

. Increasing numbers of young black churchmen criticized mainstream white religious groups for their com- plicity with racism, demanded reparations, and agitated f'or substantive Power or leadership roles within the governing structures of the National Council of Churches. Out of the interracial conflict and tension emerged a black theology that critiqued racism within white religious groups. It was followed by a black feminist theology that offered searing critiques of sexism within the black church. Leaders in the development of Black Theology and the expression of a black nationalist Christianity were theologians James H. Cone, and the Reverend Albert Cleage Jr. of Detroit who was pastor of' the Shrine of the Black Madonna and a passion- ate advocate of black liberation theology.

Black liberation theology asserted the importance of conjoining religious practice and faith with political activism and social change.


Identify what actions A. Philip Randolph took to increase the number of African American workers in defense industries

In the early Civil Rights Movement, Randolph led the March on Washington Movement, which convinced President Franklin D. Roosevelt to issue Executive Order 8802 in 1941, banning discrimination in the defense industries during World War II. The group then successfully pressured President Harry S. Truman to issue Executive Order 9981 in 1948, ending segregation in the armed services.


What was the importance of the Tuskegee Institute during World War II?

Tuskegee Institute and its formation, which ultimately gives birth to the Tuskegee Airmen. After their superb flight training, there were a select few that made a major impact in the war
through their excellent piloting skills. These men are known today as the Tuskegee Airmen.


How did the Second World War affect employment and migration for African Americans?

It accelerated the migration from farm to factory and urban areas with the lure of high paying defense jobs.


What role did Rosa Parks play in the beginnings of the Civil Rights Movement?

African American woman whose refusal to give up her seat sparked the Montgomery Bus Boycott


Describe the importance of Jackie Robinson to the fight against segregation.

He was recruited by the Brooklyn Dodgers to increase their chances of winning a pennant, which hay did with his help. He played spectacular baseball despite being taunted and ridiculed.


Explain the methods Martin Luther King felt would be most effective in gaining civil rights for African Americans.

He is best known for his role in the advancement of civil rights using nonviolent civil disobedience based on his Christian beliefs.

King was born on January 15, 1929, in Atlanta, Georgia, to Reverend Martin Luther King, Sr., and Alberta Williams King.[1] King's legal name at birth was Michael King,


Explain the Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas Supreme Court case and the importance of the decision

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional. The decision overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson decision of 1896, which allowed state-sponsored segregation, insofar as it applied to public education. Handed down on May 17, 1954, the Warren Court's unanimous (9–0) decision stated that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal." As a result, de jure racial segregation was ruled a violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution. This ruling paved the way for integration and was a major victory of the civil rights movement.[1]

Brown decision would undermine state-sanctioned segregation in all aspects of American life


What happened in Little Rock, Arkansas, in September 1957

At the beginning of the school year in 1957, Faubus posted 270 soldiers from the Arkansas National Guard outside Little Rock Central High School to prevent nine black youths from entering. Faubus was determined to ignore the Brown ruling and to maintain school segregation. A federal district court order forced the governor to allow the children into the school. He simply withdrew the state guard and left the children alone to face a hate-filled mob.

To defend the sovereignty of the federal court and the Constitution, Eisenhower had to act. He sent in 1,100 paratroopers from the 101st Airborne to Little Rock and put the state national guard under federal authority.


What were the armed services like for African Americans during World War II?

The War Department laid out two key policies in 1941 for the use of black soldiers. Although they would be taken into the military at the same rate as white inductees, African Americans would be segregated and would serve primarily in noncombat units.

In creating these policies, the army and navy ignored evidence of the lighting ability that African Americans had shown in previous wars,

Although the War and Navy Departments held to the fiction of "separate but equal" in their segregation program, their policies gave black Americans inferior resources or excluded them entirely.

For southern African Americans, even going home in uniform could be dangerous. For example, when Rieves Bell of Starkville, Mississippi, was visiting his family in 1943, three young white men cornered him on a street and attempted to strip off his uniform.