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Flashcards in HIV - retroviruses Deck (56)
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Kaposi's Sarcoma

relatively benign cancer usually seen in elderly
but cases were starting to present in 1981 in young gay men

1

Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia

rare lung infection
pts usually cured in 1 ten day treatment or died
but pts were asking for refills
clustering of these cases

2

AIDS defined by CDC in

september of 1982

3

1983

science realized that HIV-1 is causative agent of AIDS

4

retroviruses

enveloped
+ssRNA
that replicate through DNA intermediate using reverse transcriptase

5

Deltaretrovirus

complex
Oncovirinae
causes Human T cell leukemia

6

Lentivirus

complex
Lentivirinae
HIV-1, HIV-2, FIV

7

retroviruses encode

RNA dependent DNA pol transcriptase

8

Retroviruses replicate through

a DNA intermediate termed Provirus

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How is provirus integrated into the host genome?

with help of integrase

10

What genes do simple retroviruses encode?

gag
pol
env

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Complex retroviruses encode

accessory genes
tat
rev
nef
vif
vpr
vpu

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what enzymes does GAG encode?

MA
CA
NC

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MA

matrix protein that lines the envelope

14

CA

capsid protein
protects the core
most abundant

15

NC

Nucleocapsid protein
protects the genome
forms the core

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Proteins that POL encodes?

RT
IN
PR

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RT

reverse transcriptase
transcribes RNA genome
has RNAseH activity

18

IN

integrase protein
encoded by pool gene
needed for integration of provirus

19

PR

protease
essential for gag protein cleavage during maturation

20

ENV encodes proteins

SU
TM

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SU

surface glycoprotein
outer envelop glycoprotein
major virus antigen

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TM

Transmembrane Protein
inner component of mature envelope glycoprotein

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TAT

transactivator
positive regulator of transcription

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REV

regulation of viral expression
allows export of unspliced and partially spliced transcripts from nucleus

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VIF

viral infectivity
affects particle infectivity

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VPR

viral protein R
transport of DNA to nucleus, augments virion production
cell cycle arrest

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VPU

viral protein U
promotes intracellular degradation of CD4 and enhances release of virus from cell membrane

28

NEF

negative regulation factor (not one of the regulatory proteins)
augments viral replication in vivo and in vitro
Downregulates CD4 and MHC II - this protects virus during replication so that cell does not shut down

29

steps of Retrovirus replication - 7 steps

1 - fusion of HIV to host cell surface
2 - HIV RNA, RT, integrase and other proteins enter the cell
3 - Viral DNA is formed by RT
4 - Viral DNA is transported across the nucleus and integrates into host DNA
5 - New viral RNA is used as genomic RNA and to make viral proteins
6 - New viral RNA and proteins move to the cell surface and a new immature HIV forms
7 - virus matures by protease releasing individual HIV proteins