mechanisms of inflammation Flashcards Preview

CMBM exam 3 > mechanisms of inflammation > Flashcards

Flashcards in mechanisms of inflammation Deck (50):
0

Inflammation

complex rxn following infection, trauma or noxious agents involving vascular alterations and migration of leukocytes
eliminates microbes and repairs damaged tissues
Excessive tissue damage can occur

1

Acute inflammation

from tissue damage and/or infection
immediate response beginning within minutes of tissue insult
predominant infiltrating cell type - neutrophil

2

Chronic inflammation

often follows unresolved acute inflammation
days after acute inflammation
infiltrating cell type: mononuclear - monocyte derived macs, T cells, rarely B cells

3

Allergic inflammation

allergens
follows allergen mediated degranulation of mast cells
infiltrating cells - Eosinophils and mononuclear cells - T cells and Macs

4

Examples of autoimmune diseases

Rheumatoid arthirits
Lupus
Type 1 diabetes

5

Inflammatory diseases that are not autoimmune or infectious

Asthma
Alzheimer's
Psoriasis
Atherosclerosis

6

where are Mast cells found?

Mucosal sub epithelia
Skin

7

General process of Inflammation

Stimulus
Release of inflammatory mediators
Increased vascular permeability
upregulation of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells and leukocytes
attraction and activation of leukocytes
Phagocytosis or other effector functions

8

Cardinal signs of inflammation

Cellulitis
Rubor - redness
Tumor - swelling
Calor - Heat
Dolor - Pain
Functio - loss of function

9

Causes of cardinal signs of inflammation

Vascular dilation - slows and increases blood flow
Extravasion of plasma - Edema, swelling
Leukocyte accumulation at site of injury
Kinin stimulation of nerve fibers - pain

10

molecular basis of inflam stimuli

Microbial PAMP are detected by PRR (TLR) on resident tissue cells.
these cells release pro-inflammatory cytokines

Damaged cells release "warning" chemicals (damage associated molecular patterns) detected by DRR on tissue Macs, DCs and other tissue cells

11

Where are PRRs?

On the surface of cells and inside cells as well

12

Vasodilation and increased vascular permeability happen

together

13

Upon vasodilation, proteins leak out, name some

cytokines
antibodies
complement
clotting factors

14

Increased vascular permeability

Endothelial cell constriction allows gaps to open up so plasma, proteins and cells can enter tissues

15

Briefly describe the process of Leukocyte migration through blood vessels

Activation and attraction by inflammatory cytokines of lymphocytes
Rolling of lymphocytes
Adhesion of lymphocytes
Arrest
Transmigration

16

P-selection

Rolling of neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes

17

E-selectin

Rolling, adhesion to activated endothelium - neutrophils, monocytes, T cells

18

ICAM-1

Adhesion, arrest, transmigration - all leukocytes

19

VCAM-1

adhesion of eosinophils, monocytes and lymphocytes

20

CD31(PECAM)

Leukocyte migration through endothelium

21

What mediators does the Liver contribute to the inflammatory response?

Factor XII - Kinin and coagulation system
Complements

22

Activation of Hageman Factor (FActor XII) leads to

activation of the Kinin, complement and clotting cascade

23

IL-1 and TNF-a

Activate endothelial cells to constrict and up regulate adhesion moleucles

24

Eicosanoids for vasoconstriction

Thromboxane A2
Leukotrienes C4, D4, E4

25

IL-6

induces release of acute phase proteins from liver

26

CC chemokines

recruitment of mononuclear cells and eosinophils
MIP, MCP, RANTES eotactin

27

CXC chemokines

involved in neutrophil recruitment
IL8

28

IL-17

leads to neutrophil production from bone marrow and neutrophil activation

29

IL-2

activation of T cells, T cell proliferation

30

IFN-gamma

from Th1 cells
activates Macs

31

Mononuclear cells

Monocyte/Macs and lymphocytes

33

Type of Chronic inflammation

Granuloma formation
seen in TB
Histologically, see Multinucleated Giant cells
round in appearance

34

What are some sources for inflammatory mediators?

Tissue macrophages, dendritic cells
Mast cells
Leukocytes
Endothelial cells

35

What stimulates the alternative pathway to inflammation?

C5a, C3a

36

What stimulates the classic pathway to phagocytosis?

C3b

37

What stimulates the lectin pathway to lysis of the cell?

MAC formation

38

What are the three interaction cascades of plasma protein systems?

Clotting
Kinin
Complement

39

What do all three plasma protein cascades lead to?

Inflammation

40

What eicosanoids cause vasoconstriction?

Thromboxane A2, leukotrienes C4, D4, E4

41

What eicosanoids cause vasodilation?

PGI2, PGE1 and 2, PGD2

42

What eicosanoids cause inc vascular permeability?

Leukotriene B4, HETE, lipoxin

43

What eicosanoids cause chemotaxis, leukocyte adhesion?

Leukotriene B4, HETE, lipoxin

44

What are the events for inflammatory mediators?

Fever
Pain
Vasodilation
Inc vascular permeability
Attraction of leukocytes
Activation of endothelium

45

What are the chemokines involved in recruitment of monouclear cells into sites of inflammation?

CCL2 (MCP-1)
CCL3 (MIP-1a)
CCL4 (MIP-1b)
CCL5 (RANTES)

46

Eosinophils and mononuclear cells characterize the;

Infiltrate in allergic inflammation

47

What are the steps of the inflammatory process in allergic reactions?

Stimulus
Secretion from inflammatory mediators (mast cells)
Vasodilation (histamine)
Inc vascular permeability (TNF and arachidonic acid)
Up-regulation of adhesion molecules to VLA-4
Diapedesis, chemotoxis and activation of leukocytes

48

What are acute inflammatory disease?

ARDS
Acute transplant rejection
Acute asthma attack
Glomerulonephritis
Septic shock
Vasculitis

49

What are chronic inflammation diseases?

Arthritis
Atherosclerosis
Chronic lung disease
Chronic transplant rejection

50

What are allergic inflammation diseases?

Asthma
Atopic dermatitis