Flashcards in Intro Pathology & Cell adaption Deck (47)
when exposed to stress Mechanisms of adaption are
increase in number of cells in any organ/tissue
examples of tissue that undergo physiologic hyperplasia when stressed?
uterus and prostate - hormone induced
What tissue exhibits compensatory hyperplasia?
skin calluses from trauma
ex: like digging with a shovel causes calluses to form
prolonged hormonal stimulation => BPH, fibroids
viral infection by papillomavirus => wart
increased size of cells and/or the organ
Hypertrophy due to pathogenesis
increased functional demand - running
Hormonal stimulation - thyroxin
shrinkage in size of the cell by loss of structural components
what can be some causes of atrophy?
decreased work load
loss of innervation
diminished blood supply
loss of endocrine stimulation
reversible change in which one adult epithelial type is replaced by another adult type epithelium
Squamous metaplasia in uterine cervix ...
Squamous metaplasia in bronchi
leads to chronic bronchitis in smokers
(columnar going to sqaumous)
Chronic irritation of the bronchus
increases risk of infection in lungs
If metaplasia is pathologic and prolonged can give rise to
dysplasia then squamous cell carcinoma
epithelial or mesenchymal cells that have undergone metaplasia then atypical cytological alterations involving cell size, shape and orientation
evolution at cellular level detrimental to the host organism
can then lead to cancer (uncontrolled growth)
ex: snuff => cheek
Pt has RUQ pain. Stools are pale. Bilirubin 9.7
Normal Bilirubin 0.1-1.1
cholangiogram shows gallstone in bile duct
what change is seen on the skin?
Pt smokes 2 pk/day and 30 yr
chronic cough for past 3 yrs, worse in past 2 weeks
Left pulmonary parenchymal lesion
Biopsy shows squamous metaplasia
what is most appropriate interpretation?
this NOT cancer yet
Pt experiences blood loss from MVA
hypotensive for hours
Hematocrit is 12%
What tissues least resistant to impact of these events?
at end of menstrual cycle, endometrium sloughs off. Endometrium microspocially shows cellular fragmentation
What would trigger upregulation of BCL-2 in endometrial cells?
BCL-2 involved in up regulation of cell death
what break up abnormal proteins in cells?
chaperone ubiquitin protease
environment accentuates aging by
intracellular accumulation of exogenous materials
carbon pigment in the lung
goes to the hilar lymph nodes
examples of intracellular accumulations
Why do bruises turn brown?
iron deposition and hemosiderin
Hemolytic anemia can cause
spleen and liver eat up RBCs and recycle
iron to the BM for new RBCs
multiple transfusions cause
hemosiderin deposition in the kupfer cells of the liver
While dystrophic calcification occurs in dead or injured tissues, metastatic calcification occurs in