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Flashcards in Cell injury and death Deck (41):
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Hypoxia

decreased availability of oxygen - pneumonia or CO
loss of oxygen carrying capacity of the blood
Loss RBCs anemia
Brain (neurons) most sensitive

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Common causes of reversible cellular injury

Trauma - concussion, frost bite
Hypoxia
Ischemia

2

Ischemia

insufficient blood supply
absence of oxygen AND nutrients
occlusion of an artery or vein

3

common causes of irreversible cell injury

hypoxia - brain cells
Ischemia - cardiac cells
Physical agents - trauma
Chemical agents - drug
infectious agents
immunologic reactions
genetic disease
nutritional disorders

4

Apoptosis

cell has internal signal for death
programmed cell death
clean way to die and remove cell
No inflammation - prevents damage to adjacent cells

5

Where is apoptosis commonly seen?

embryogenesis
hormone induced changes
mild trauma or injury removing nonfunctional cells
chemo & radiotherapy - Neurons more resistant
Immune reactions
Atrophy
Graft vs host disease
some viral diseases

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Events of Apoptosis

cell becomes densely eosinophilic
shrinks with pyknosis of nucleus
cytoplasmic blebs
phagocytosis of apoptoic bodies
cell fragments

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What is the definition of pathology?

The study of disease

9

What does it mean when a cell experiences hyperplasia?

Increase in the number of cells in any organ tissue

10

What are the etiological reasons for cells to undergo hyperplasia?

Physiologic - hormone induced
Compensatory - callus formation
Pathologic - viral infection causing warts

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What does it mean when a cell undergoes hypertrophy?

Increase size of the cell or organ

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What is the parthenogenesis of hypertrophy?

Increased functional demand (running)
Hormonal stimulation (thyroxin)

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What does it mean when a cell experiences atrophy?

Shrinkage in the size of the cell by loss of structural components

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What could cause a cell to enter an atrophic state?

Dec workload
Loss of innervation
Diminished blood supply
Inadequate nutrition
Loss of endocrine stimulation

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What does it mean when a cell undergoes metaplasia?

Reversible change in which one adult epithelial cell type is replaced by another adult type epithelium

16

What could happen if there was a pathologic and prolonged irritation causing metaplasia?

Dysplasia which can lead to Cancer (squamous cell)

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What does it mean when a cell experiences dysplasia?

Epithelial or mesenchymal cells that have undergone metaplasia then atypical cytogical alterations involving cell size, shape and orientation

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What can dysplasia lead to?

Cancer (a neoplasia/uncontrolled growth)

19

What is the chaperone ubiquitin-protease?

An intracellular accumulant which causes the cells to obtain a yellow tinge with aging

20

What is antracosis?

Carbon pigment in the lung
inc in smokers

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What are some example of intracellular accumulations?

Lipofuscin
Melanin
Iron
Calcium
Fat
Bilirubin

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What is lipofuscin?

A yellow pigment that occurs both physiologically and pathologically that is left over from the breakdown and absorption of damaged blood cells
Likes the heart

23

What causes an increase in melanin?

Tanning

24

What does a bruise turn brown?

Due to iron deposition and hemosiderin

25

What could cause an accumulation of bilirubin?

Bile duct occulsion
Alcoholism
Drugs
Hemolytic anemia
Pancreatic tumors

26

What are the functions to regulate cell populations due to apoptosis?

Calcium sensitive endonuclease leading to pyknosis
Transgluaminase activity causing cytoplasmic shrinkage by cross linking proteins
Gene activation (bcl-2, c-myc, p53)

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What are the four factors that could lead to apoptosis?

Injury from radiation, toxins and free radicals
Withdrawal of growth factors
Receptor ligand interactions
Cytotoxic T cells

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What are the steps to apoptosis?

Intrinsic embryogenic e
Execute caspases
Catabolism of cytoskeleton
Apoptotic body with ligand receptors
Ingested by macrophage

29

What is nuclear pyknosis?

Ink-dot appearance that represents the first light microscopic evidence of cell death

30

What is the normal pathway for apoptosis when viewed in a light microscope?

Pyknosis > karyorrhexis (fragments) > karyolysis (full breakdown)

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How is aging death by apoptosis?

Sub lethal cellular injury
Programmed genetically by chromosome 1 induced telmoric shortening
Limited number of cell division due to telomeres
Renegade cells (cancer)

32

What are the 4 forms of necrosis?

Coagulation, liquid, caseous and fat

33

What does coagulative tissue look like?

Looks like the tissue was boiled
Outline of cell preserved
Seen in hypoxic death (except brain)
Anucleate eosinophils

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What are the best examples of coagulative necrosis?

Kidney and myocardium

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What characterizes liquefactive necrosis?

Progressive degradation of cell by enzymes and denaturation of proteins either by autolysis or heterolysis
Seen with fungal/bacterial infections

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Where is liquefactive necrosis often seen?

The brain

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What is fat necrosis?

Saponification of fat cells with calcification due to enzymatic breakdown of lipases
Dystropic calcification

38

Where does fat necrosis tend to occur?

Breast and liver
Can be seen along with cancer

39

How is caseous necrosis characterized?

Distinct pattern of centralized amorphous debris and surrounding granulomas

40

What is gangrenous necrosis?

Not a distinct pattern and happens to hypoxic limbs
Combo of coagulative (dry) and liquefactive necrosis

41

What is fibrinoid necrosis?

Accumulation of amorphous, basic, proteinaceous material in the tissue matrix that stains like fibrin