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Flashcards in Major RNA viruses Deck (128):
1

What are the components of a naked virus?

Capsid and nucleic acid

2

What are the components of an enveloped virus?

Envelope of glycoproteins
Spikes
Capsid
Nucleic acid

3

How are capsids symmetrical?

Identical proteins "capsomeres"
Based on icosahedral or helical structure

4

What is the purpose of the capsid?

Protects the genetic material
Recognized when its attached to the host

5

What RNA viruses are +ssRNA, enveloped and icosahedral?

Flavivirdae
Togaviridae
Retroviridae

6

What RNA virus is +ssRNA, enveloped and helical?

Coronaviridae

7

What RNA viruses are +ssRNA, nonenveloped and icosahedral?

Picornvaviridae
Caliciviridae

8

What RNA viruses -ssRNA, enveloped and helical?

Orthomyxoviridae
Paramyxoviridae
Rhabdoviridae
Filoviridae
Bunyaviridae
Arenaviridae

9

What RNA viruses are dsDNA, nonenveloped and icosahedral?

Reoviridiae

10

All RNA viruses replicate in the cytoplasm except;

Orthomyxoviridae and Retroviridae

11

All RNA viruses are single stranded except:

Reoviridae

12

All RNA viruses and evveloped except;

Picornaviridae
Caliciviviridae
Reoviridae

13

All -ssRNA viruses are ___ in shape.

Helical

14

Why do RNA viruses have a high rate of mutation?

Because they lack DNA polymerase

15

What are the three genus classifications for Picornaviruses?

Enterovirus
Rhinovirus
Hepatovirus

16

What are the species within enterovirus?

Poliovirus 1-3
Echovirus 1-34
Coxsackievirus A 1-24
Coxsackievirus B 1-6
Enterovirus 68-71

17

What is the species within Rhinovirus?

Human Rhinovirus 1-115

18

What is the species within Hepatovirus?

Hepatitis A virus

19

What are some characteristics of Picornavirus?

Small is large
Large family
Replicate in cytoplasm
Non-enveloped, +sslinear, icosahedral

20

What are the only susceptible host for poliovirus?

Humans

21

The 3 serotypes of polio have ___ homology.

33-66%

22

What are the two vaccine types for polio?

IVP (Salk) inactive
OPV (Sabin)

23

Who many infections of polio are type 1?

70 - 90%

24

How is polio transmitted?

Ingestion (fecal-oral)

25

Where does polio infect once in the body?

Cells of the oropharyngeal and intestinal mucosa

26

Where does polio replicate?

In the lymph nodes and GALT

27

Which is more common, a primary or secondary viremia of polio?

Primary (95%)

28

How many cases of polio spread to the CNS?

1%

29

Where is polio spread?

Feces

30

What are the clinical manifestations of polio?

Meningitis (aseptic)
Encephalitis
Paralytic poliomyelitis

31

If polio has attacked the anterior horn of of the spinal cord what happens?

Flaccid paralysis

32

What happens if polio attacks the medulla?

Paralysis of the diaphragm - you ded

33

What viruses are a common cause of lymphocytic meningitis?

Enterovirus
Coxsackie virus A & B
Echovirus
Poliovirus
Arbovirus
HIV
HSV-2

34

What are the three types of paralytic polio?

Spinal (80%)
Bulbar (2%) muscle weakness
Bulbospinal (15%) combo of both

35

How is polio diagnosed?

Isolation of virus from stool or CSF

36

How is polio treated?

No specific treatment
-pain and muscle spasm treatment
-orthopedic support

37

Which of the polio vaccines were effective against all 3 strands?

Both Salk and Sabin

38

What are the good things about OPV for polio?

Oral
Lifelong immunity
No boosters needed
Contributes to herd immunity

39

What are the bad things about OPV for polio?

Risk of vaccine associated polio
Immunocompromised can't have it

40

What are the good things about IPV for polio?

No risk of vaccine associated polio
Safe for immmunocompromised
Easier to store and transport

41

What are bad things about IPV for polio?

Booster needed
Injection
Large dose needed

42

How is Coxsackievirus transmitted?

Ingestions (fecal-oral) and highly contagious

43

What is the vaccine for coxsackie?

None

44

What is the treatment for coxsackie?

None
just wash your hands and don't get it

45

What coxsackie virus type causes hand, foot and mouth disease and what are the symptoms?

A9, A16
Vascular rash on hands, feet, mouth and tongue with mild fever

46

What coxsackie virus type causes hemorrhagic conjuctivitis and what are the symptoms?

A24
Eye pain followed by redness, tears, swelling and sensitivity
Contagious

47

What coxsackie virus type causes poliomyelitis like symptoms?

A7

48

What other diseases do coxsackie A virus cause?

Aseptic meningitis
Herpangina

49

What are the characteristics of coxsackie B?

Worldwide distribution
All but one type found in the US first

50

What coxsackie virus type B might be associated with hand, foot and mouth disease?

B2 and B5

51

What coxsackie virus type cases juvenile diabetes (IDDM)?

B4

52

What other diseases does coxsackie type B cause?

Pleurodynia
Myocarditis

53

What are the symptoms for herpangina?

Fever, sore throat, anorexia, vomiting
Vesicular ulcerating lesions on soft palate and uvula

54

What are the symptoms for pleurodynia?

Acute onset of fever, unilateral low thoracic chest pain
Pain is called "devil's grip"
Males have testicular pain

55

Describe the characteristics of Rhinovirus.

Most common cause of the common cold
More common in the summer
Infection localized in the nose

56

How is rhinovirus transmitted?

Respiratory secretions

57

What are the symptoms of rhinovirus?

Runny nose

58

What is the treatment for rhinovirus?

None

59

What was Hepatitis A originally known as?

Enterovirus 72

60

How is Hep A transmitted?

Fecal-Oral

61

What are the symptoms of Hep A?

Sudden fever and jaundice

62

What does Hep A infect?

Intestinal epithelial cells and spread to liver

63

What causes the life long immunity to Hep A?

IgG anti hep A

64

What is the treatment for Hep A?

None

65

What are the characteristics of caliciviridae?

Naked, Icosahedral +ssRNA
Resistant to heat and detergent but not pH

66

What is Norovirus associated with in terms of transmission?

Contaminated water and food supply due to fecal oral transmission

67

What kind of places would you expect to see norovirus?

Potlucks and cruise ships

68

Is norovirus highly contagious?

Yes

69

How do you isolate norovirus?

The the stool or vomit of infected pts

70

What does norovirus cause?

Acute gastroenteritis 12 0 24 hours after ingesting infected substance
Self-limits after 1 or 2 weeks

71

How can you prevent norovirus?

Good hygiene

72

How is Hepatitis E virus transmitted?

Fecal-oral

73

What is hep E associate with in terms of transmission?

Contaminated water and epidemic hepatitis

74

What happens if a pregnant woman get hep E?

She has a high chance of dying or will have a spontaneous abortion

75

Reovirus is very diverse. What can it infect?

Mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, amphibians and plants

76

What does the REO stand for in reovirus?

Respiratory Enteric Orphan virus

77

What are the two forms of reovirus humans are mostly infected with?

Rotavirus
Orbivirus (coltivirus?)

78

How is rotavirus transmitted?

Ingestion, fecal to oral

79

How many children have rotovirus antibodies?

Almost all of them all over the world

80

What is the most common cause of death due to infantile diarrhea?

Rotovirus

81

When does rotovirus generally occur during the year?

Winter
Year round in the tropics

82

How many type of rotovirus are there and which is the most commmon?

A, B, C, D, E
A is most common

83

What does rotovirus type A cause?

Infantile diarrhea with vomiting and fever

84

What does rotovirus type B cause?

Adult onset of severe diarrhea (epidemic in east Asia)

85

What are the three major type of flavivirdae?

Pestivirus
Hepatitis C virus
Flavivirus

86

What are the viruses within flavivirus?

Yellow fever
Japanese encephalitis
St. Louis encephalitis
West Nile encephalitis
Dengue

87

How can you classify dengue?

Enveloped, +ssRNA

88

What serotypes exists for denge?

DENV-1, 2, 3, 4

89

How is denge transmitted?

Aedes aegypti (mosquito)

90

What are the typical uncomplicated (classic) symptoms of dengue?

Fever within 4-7 days exposure
Severe headache
Severe joint and muscle pain
Nausea and vomiting
Rash

91

What are the symptoms of hemorrhagic fever in dengue?

Symptoms of classic
Gingival and nasal bleeding
Inc menstrual flow
GI bleeding
Hematuria

92

How do you diagnose dengue?

ELISA serology and antigens
Tourniquet test

93

How is dengue managed?

Self-limiting fever control (avoid aspirin)
Insect repellent
No antiviral treatment
No vaccine

94

What virus is a common form of blood-borne hepatitis is hospitals?

Hepatitis C

95

What does it mean when Hep C is in the chronic state?

Cirrhosis
End-stage liver disease
Hepatocellular carcinoma

96

What is the main symptom of Hep C?

Jaundice

97

What is the treatment for Hep C?

Pergylated IFNalpha with ribavirin

98

What are the who types of togaviridae?

Rubivirus and Alphavirus

99

What type of togaviridae is rubella?

Rubivirus

100

What are the different type of alphavirus?

Chikungunya
Eastern equine encephalitis virus
Western equine encephalitis virus
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus

101

How is rubella transmitted?

Respiratory droplets

102

How is rubella general transmitted?

Maculopapular rash that starts on the face and spreaks to trunk then extremities
May have occipital and post auricular lymphadenopathy

103

Why is rubella dangerous if a pregnant mother contracts it?

It can cross the placenta is viremic and all germ layers may be infected
The early in the pregnancy the more dangerous it is, vaccine cannot be given

104

What viruses are included in filoviridae?

Ebola
Marburg
Cuevavirus

105

What symptom is associated with the viruses in filoviridae?

Hemorrhagic fever
Early: muscle aches, fever, vomiting, red eyes, skin rash
Acute: bleeding and skin hemorrhage

106

What is the treatment and vaccine for filoviridae?

None

107

How is orthomyxoviridae characterized?

Enveloped, -ssRNA, segmented

108

What are the three types of orthomyxoviridae?

Influenza A, B and C

109

Which influenza type infects humans only?

B
(all can infect but B is exclusive)

110

What is antigenic drift?

Small, constant point mutations
Gradual changes to amino acid composition
Leads to epidemics
Annual vaccinations

111

Which types of flu participate in antigenic drift?

A, B, C

112

What is antigenic shift?

Substitution of a gene segment with segments from another flu virus from a different host = reassortment
Pandemics
Less common

113

Which type of flu participates in antigenic shift?

A

114

How do you name a type of influenza?

Host origin, geographic location of first encounter, strain number and isolation year
ex. A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)

115

How is influenza transmitted?

Person to person, direct contact and aerosol droplets

116

What does influenza infect in the body?

Respiratory epithelial cells

117

How long does the flu incubate?

1 to 4 days

118

What are some complications of the flu?

Bronchitis and pneumonia

119

What treatments are there for the flu?

Amantidine (no longer affective)
Zanamivir (Relenza)
Oseltamivir (Tamiflu)

120

What type of virus in rubulavirus and what does it cause?

Paramyxoviridae, mumps

121

What are the structural components of a paramyxoviridae?

Surface G protein
Fusion protein
Matrix protein
Phosphoprotein
Nucleoprotein
Polymerase

122

What acute viral illness does the mumps cause?

Parotitis and orchitis

123

How are the mumps transmitted?

Respiratory

124

What is the incubation period for he mumps? when is it viremic?

14 - 18 days
12 - 25 days

125

What are the symptoms of the mumps?

Nonspecific, myalgia, headache
Parotitis (30-40%)

126

What type of paramyxoviridae causes the measles?

Morbilivirus

127

What are the clinical signs of the measles?

Cough, coryza, conjuctivits
Koplic spots
Maculopapular rash

128

What type of paramyxoviridae causes respiratory syncytial virus?

Pneumovirus