Hypersensitivity (Davies + Schaefer) Flashcards Preview

Multisystem Midterm > Hypersensitivity (Davies + Schaefer) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hypersensitivity (Davies + Schaefer) Deck (42):
1

Allergic rhinitis is a Type ____ hypersensitivity and is mediated by Ig____.

I, IgE

2

Drug allergies are a type ____ hypersensitivity, mediated by Ig__.

II, IgG

3

Graft rejection is a type ____ hypersensitivity and is mediated by ______.

4, CTL

4

What cell type is primarily responsible for degranulation and the release of histamine in a type I hypersensitivity?

Mast cell

5

What is the cytokine released from mast cells that is responsible for promoting inflammation and endothelial activation?

TNF-a

6

What leukotrienes are released from mast cells and promote smooth muscle contraction, increased vascular permeability and mucus secretions (3)?

C4, D4, and E4

7

TH2 cells release _____ to activate IgE production and ____ to activate Eosinophils against parasites.

IL-4, IL-5

8

What is the primary cell type targeted during penicillin allergy?

Erythrocyte

9

______ from a naive T cell will bind with ____ on an APC for co-stimulation.

CD28, B7

10

What type of selection takes place in bone marrow (cell and name of selection)?

B-cell negative selection

11

What is the selection process of T cells and where does it take place?

Positive selection in the cortex (CD 4 and CD 8)
Negative selection in the thymic medulla (CD 4 or CD 8)

12

What are the three immunologically privileged sites in the body?

Brain, eye, testes

13

What cell type is responsible for suppression of T cells?

T reg cells

14

What is the fate of a T cell that does not get a B7 costimulation from an APC?

Anergy

15

T reg cells use IL-___, IL-___, and TNF-___ to suppress activation of CD4 T cells.

10, 35, Beta

16

What role does Group A Strep play in rheumatic fever (a Type II Hypersensitivity)?

Molecular mimicry induces carditis and polyarthritis

17

Ankylosing spodylitis is associated with HLA-___.

B27

18

Birdshot chorioretinopathy is associated with HLA-___.

A29

19

Type I DM is strongly associated with HLA-___ and ___.

DQ2 and DQ8

20

What Ig mediates Type I HS?

IgE

21

What are the mediators of Type II HS?

IgG or IgM and complement

22

What are the mediators of Type III HS?

IgG and complement

23

What are the mediators of Type IV HS?

T cells, Macrophages, histiocytes

24

What is the difference between Types II and III HS?

Type II is antibody mediated
Type III is immune complex mediated

25

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is an example of Type __ HS?

II

26

Grave's disease is an example of Type ___ HS?

II

27

What are the three primary consequences of HS in SLE?

Glomerulonephritis, vasculitis, and arthritis

28

Type I DM is an example of Type ___ HS?

IV

29

What is the pathophysiology of Type I DM?

Anti-beta cell CTLs kill Beta cells, preventing insulin production

30

What blood type is the universal donor? What is the universal recipient?

Donor: O neg
Recipient: AB pos

31

What protein is used to identify compatible recipient-donor?

HLA

32

Hyperacute rejection is an example of Type ___ HS.

II

33

How can a hyper acute rejection be rescued?

Trick question - It can't

34

What mediates acute rejection?

Host T cells against HLA alleles

35

Acute rejection is a Type ___ HS.

IV

36

Chronic rejection is a Type ___ HS.

III

37

What is the pathophysiology of chronic rejection?

Immune complex depositions in the vasculature of the graft recruit inflammatory cells --> Immune effects enter the graft tissue --> Increasing immunity causes rejection of tissue

38

How are acute and chronic rejection prevented and treated?

Immunosuppression

39

What is the mechanism of Belatacept in immune suppression?

Block B7 on APC, preventing T cell activation

40

What is the mechanism of cyclosporine and FK-506?

Block NFAT transcription --> Inhibit IL-2 production --> reduced T cell activation

41

What is the strategy behind long term maintenance of immunosuppressive drugs in organ transplant?

Interfere with T cell activation

42

Bone marrow transplant rejection is an example of ______ (Graft/Host) vs. ______ (Graft/Host) and is mediated by _____ (Donor/Host) _____ cells.

Graft vs. Host, Donor T-cells