Antibiotics I (lecture) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Antibiotics I (lecture) Deck (39):
1

What is the cell target of penicillins?

Cell wall synth (Beta lactam)

2

What is the cell target of Cephalosporins?

Cell wall synth

3

What is the cell target of monolactams?

Cell wall synth

4

What is the cell target of Carbapenems?

Cell wall synth

5

What is the cell target of Glycopeptides?

Cell wall synth

6

What enzyme is targeted by all B-lactams?

transpeptidase

7

What amino acid pattern is targeted by B-lactams?

D-Ala-D-Ala

8

What type of bacteria is primarily targeted by PCN?

Gram +

9

What are the two penicillinase-resistant penicillins available in the US?

Nafcillin and cloxacillin

10

Ampicillin and amoxicillin are examples of _______ _______ penicillins?

Extended range

11

What is the only antipseudomonal pcn available in the US?

Ticarcillin

12

What pcn is used to target Enterobacter, Proteus, and Pseudomonuas?

Ticarcillin

13

What is the spectrum of first generation cephalosporins?

Narrow spectrum G+ - staph and strep

14

What cephalosporin is used prophylactically for surgery?

Cefazolin

15

What is the difference in use between the generations of cephalosporins?

As we move from 1st to 4th generation the drug goes from primarily targeting G + to G - (i.e. 1st generation is more G + and 4th is more G -)

16

What classification of Abx end in "-penem"?

Carbapenems

17

What carbapenem is good for E. coli, S. aureus, Klebsiella, Enterobacter and H. influenzae?

Imipenem

18

What are two contraindication of Imipenem?

PCN allergy, renal disease

19

What is the main benefit of Meropenem and Doripenem compared to Imipenem?

Reduced nephrotoxicity

20

What is the main benefit of Ertapenem compared to Imipenem?

Longer t1/2 - one / day dosing

21

What generation of cephalosporins is used to target pseudomonas?

3rd

22

What cephalosporin is used to target N. meningitidis?

Ceftriaxone

23

What drug class is Aztreonam?

Monobactam

24

What is used for targeting P. aeruginosa in CF patients?

Aztreonam

25

What class of Abxs are known to cause Vit-K deficiency (bleeding side effects)?

Cephalosporins

26

What is a side effect unique to Cefoxitin?

2nd generation Ceph: Inhibit Aldehyde DH --> build up of acetaldehyde

27

How can ticarcillin lead to cardio toxicity?

Induce hypokalemia

28

What are the three mechanisms of Beta-lactam resistance?

- B-lactamases
- decreased PBP affinity
- Decreased membrane permeability

29

What is clavulanic acid and why is it used?

B-lactamase inhibitor given with pcn drugs to overcome resistance

30

What is the primary resistance factor against B-lactams in gram - bacteria?

Mutations in pore sizes prevents the entry of B-lactams

31

What are the two Glycopeptide Abx from lecture?

Vancomycin
Teicoplanin

32

What is the first line Rx against MRSA?

Vanomycin

33

How is vancomycin typically administered? What is the exception?

IV: It has a low oral availability
The exception is C. difficile colitis

34

What Abx causes red man syndrome?

Vancomycin

35

What is the site of action of Vancomycin?

Bind D-Ala-D-Ala tail of NAM --> preventing cross linking of cell wall

36

What are the adverse effect advantages of Teicoplanin over Vancomycin?

Less histamine release (red man)
Less nephrotoxicity
No ototoxicity

37

What is the MoA of Daptomycin?

Bind intracellular ion channels and promote ion leakage.

38

What is first line treatment for Acinetobacter?

Polymixin B

39

What is the MoA of Polymixins?

Disruption of membranes (G -)