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Flashcards in Hypertension Deck (45):
1

How will hypertension commonly present?

Asymptomatic
Little observation of dizziness or headache

2

What diastolic pressure is indicative of hypertension?

Greater than 90

3

What systolic pressure is indicative of hypertension?

Greater than 140

4

Pulse pressure of what is a very good indicator of hypertension?

Greater than 65

5

What age group is most at risk for hypertension?

50 or older

6

Cause of primary hypertension?

No identifiable cause

7

What happens to peripheral resistance in hypertension?
Cardiac output?

Peripheral resistance increase
Cardiac output remains the same

8

Where does Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors act?

Proximal tubule

9

What do carbonic anhydrase inhibitors prevent from being reabsorbed?

Bicarbonate which means the simport doesn't work to transport Na out and water won't follow

10

Effect of long term diuretics on HR and CO?

Unchanged

11

Effect of long term diuretics on total peripheral resistance?

Decreased

12

Effect of long term diuretics on plasma volume?

Decreased on unchanged

13

Effect of long term diuretics on plasma renin activity?

Increased

14

What diuretics act in the loop of henle?

Loop Diuretics

15

Loop Diuretics inhibit what?

Na,K,Cl symport

16

Potassium drives what ions from the lumen into interstitial space?

Ca2+
Mg2+

17

Where do loop diuretics work?

Thick ascending limb

18

Clinical uses of Loop Diuretics? (2)

Edematous conditions
Acute pulmonary edema

19

When do you not want to use Loop diuretics?

Patients with sulfa allergies

20

Toxicities of loop diuretics?

Dehydration
Hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis
Ototoxicity
Hyperuricemia
Hypomagnesemia

21

In patients with normal renal function what type of diuretics do you want to use to treat hypertension?

Thiazides are more effective than loop diuretics in these patients

22

Which diuretics work in the distal convoluted tubules?

Thiazides

23

What symport does thiazide inhibit?

Sodium Chloride channel

24

Suffix that tells you a drug is a thiazide?

THIAZIDE

25

Thiazide drug you need to know?

Chlorthiazide

26

clinical uses of thiazides? (2)

Hypertension
Congestive heart failure

27

Contraindication for thiazide diuretics?

Sulfa allergies

28

Diuretics that act in the collecting tubule?

Na channel inhibitors

29

Reduced Na entry into cells in Amiloride collecting tube diuretics also reduces whaT?

K+ excretion

30

Toxicity of Amiloride collecting tube diuretics? (2)

Hyperkalemia
Hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis

31

Contraindications for Amiloride collecting tube diuretics? (2)

K+ supplements
ACE inhibitors

32

Clinical uses of Amiloride collecting tube diuretics?

CHF/hypertension
Reducing BP

33

What type of diuretic is Triamterene?

Collecting tube diuretic

34

Effect of Triamterne on BP?

No efficacy in lowering BP when used alone

35

Contraindications of Triamterne?

Kidney stones
K+ supplements
ACE inhibitors

36

Antagonist of Aldosterone?

Spironolactone

37

Action of Spironolactone? (2)

Block actions of aldosterone
Inhibition of 5a-reductase

38

Clinical uses of Spironolactone? (1)

Hypertension/CHF

39

Toxicities of Spironolactone? (5)

Hyperkalemia
Hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis
Gynecomastia
Impotence
Benign prostatic hyperplasia

40

Contraindications of Spironolactone?

K+ supplements
ACE inhibitors
Chronic renal insufficiency

41

Aldosterone antagonist that isn't Spironolactone?

Eplerenone

42

How long does therapy with Eplerenone take?

4 weeks

43

What clinical problem do you use Eplerenone for?

Hypertension

44

Toxicities of Eplerenone? (2)

Hyperkalemia
Hypertriglyceridemia

45

Contraindications of Eplerenone? (4)

K+ supplements
CYP450 3A4 inhibitors
Diabetes associated with microalbuminuria
Chronic renal insufficiency