Flashcards in Hypothalamus V Deck (20):
GnRH: location of cells, pituitary hormone, peripheral hormones.
pit: LH, FSH
peripheral: estrogen, progesterone, testosterone (also activin and inhibin)
GHRH; somatostatin: location of cells, pituitary hormone, peripheral hormones.
Arcuate and PVN
pituitary: GH (somatotropin)
bone and liver. Liver makes IGF-1
CRH: location of cells, pituitary hormone, peripheral hormones.
peripheral: adrenal glucocortiocids
TRH: location of cells, pituitary hormone, peripheral hormones.
cells in the PVN
perpheral: T3, T4 in the thyroid
Dopamine: location of cells, pituitary hormone, peripheral hormones.
peripheral: mammary glands.
What happens with vasopression (where produced, where stored)
made in magnocellular neurons of the supraoptic and paraventricular nucleus (PVN). transported to the POSTERIOR pituitary. Stored in secretory granules until released into the circulation based on stimulation from neurons in hypothalamus circumventrricular organs.
Where are thermosensitive neurons?
What are the thermosensitive neurons involved with in addition to thermoregulation?
sleep. increase firing rate at the onset of sleep.
How does fever happen?
increased prostaglandin activity in the preoptic nuclei.
What is one important function of medial preoptic region?
sexual function. maybe maternal behaviors.
What is leptin?
synthesized by adipose tissue and proportional to the amount of adipose tissue. this is sensed by the brain. Should act as a break on food intake when food is not needed.
Where are the main receptors for leptin?
How does insulin contribute to weight?
stimulates the synthesis of fat, proteins and glycogen and inhibits their release. receptors in the hypothalamus lead to reduced food intake and weight loss. too much insulin could lead to obesity.
What is ghrelin?
hormone secreted by the stomach that opposes leptin. will increase feeding and adiposity. Increase during fasting when leptin drop --> signal to induce hunger.
Where are ghrelin receptors found?
What are the functions of anapolic peptides and some examples
increase food intake, decrease energy output, increase adipose tissue/weight.
What synthesizes NPY and AgRP?
Biochemically, what does AgRP do?
can increase feeding for up to six days
antagonist at the MC3, MC4 receptors in the PVN (these are the ghrelin receptors, so it is antagonizing ghrelin).
What do catabolic peptides do? Where synthesized? Eamples?
CART and a-MSH made in the arcuate nucleus.