Flashcards in Neuropharm V Deck (17):
What should I know about amphetamines actions, esp. in comparison?
Methamphetamine has more CNS effects than amphetamine
methylphenidate is a weaker cNS agent but has more effect on mental activity.
MOA of amphetamines.
block reuptake of catechols and enhance release from terminals. can lead to depletion.
What are adverse effects of amphetamines?
headache, dizziness, agitation, dysphoria, delirium, psychosis, palpitations, dependence, tolerance and addiction with severe withdrawal
How can amphetamines be used therapeutically?
treat depression, dementia where abulia is prominent
treats ADHD (both methylphenidate and amphetamine)
may be good for narcolepsy
used to be used for diet/appetite suppression, but no more due to sides
MOA of LSD?
agonist at 5HT receptors
Whad does LSD do?
euphoriam illusions/hallucinations, synesthesia, labile mood. Also sympathetic activation. cross-tolerance may occur.
What are adverse effects of LSD?
flashbacks, anic attacks, depression, paranoia, psychotic episodes
What is PCP? Related compounds and former uses?
hallucinogen related to ketamine that was used as an anesthetic but caused too much delirium
MOA of PCP
inhibits re-uptake of amines and 5HT; anticholinergic activity, NMDA blocker
What are some negative side effects of PCP
intoxication, staggering gait, numbness, sweating, regidity, severe violent agitation not responsive to human interaction.
may cause stupor, coma, increase HR, BP, fever, delirium, convulsions (toxic doses)
chronic use: personality changes, anxiety, depression, psychosis
What are the 5 targets of GABA use again?
synthesis, release, receptors, reuptake, metabolism
What are GABA-A receptors?q
ligand gated chlorine channels.
What is muscimol?
GABA channel agonist.
What should I know about GABA subunits?
alpha and beta have GABA binding sites. also change affinity for GABA and alter BDZ specificity
gamma required for BDZ sensitivity
What are examples of agonists to the BDZ receptor? Inverse agonists?
diazepam. augment GABA responses by increasing the affinity for GABA
inverse agonist is Beta carbolines: these reduce GABA responses and produce anxiety and convulsions.
What are BDZ site antagonists?
no intrinsic activity at the receptor but they do block the action of agonists and inverse agonists. Ex: Flumanezil