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Flashcards in Hypothalamus I Deck (17)
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What is the overaching theme of the hypothalamus? What are the 6 main outputs?

Main goal is body homeostasis
contains all the neuroendocrin motorneurons that are the final common pathway for the CNS to influence hormone secretion.
1. Neuroendocrine via connections with the pituitary gland.
2. Autonomic regulation and fluid homeostasis
3. Thermo regulation
4. Metabolism and feeding
5. Reproduction and sexual behaviors
6. Immune function and stress responses


Where is the periventricular zone and what does it contain (6 unique names). One general/diffuse function

around the third ventrical walls
Contains most of the parvocellular and mangocelluar neurosecretory neurons
Also contains 2 groups of neurons in the paraventricular nucleus
Suprachiasmatic nucleus
arcuate nucleus
supraoptic nucleus
diffusely helps produce somatostatin


What do the paraventricular nuclei do? What zone are they in?

periventricular zone
paraventricular nuclei innvervate preganglionic autionmic neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord. help with oxytocin and vasopressin release
help with corticotropin releasing hormone and thyrotropin-releasing hormone


What does the suprachiasmatic nucleus do? What zone is it in?

receives direct input from the retinal ganglia cells to help regulate Circadian rhythms.
pareiventricular zone


What does the arcuate nucleus do? What zone is it in?

Involved in neuroendocrine functions: esp. growht hormone-releasing hormone.
Periventricular zone


What does the supraoptic nucleus do? What zone is it in?

control of the release of vasopressin
periventricular zone


What is the medial zone of the hypothalamus? What nuclei does it contain?

This is the "limbic zone" with input from the telencephalon limbic system.
Nuclei are the mammillary bodies, the dorsomedial and ventromedial nuclei, and the medial preoptic nuclei


What do the mammillary body nuclei do? What zone are they in?

medial zone
involved in memory


What do the ventromedial and dorsomedial nuclei do? What zone are they in?

Involved in regulation of food intake
medial zone


What does the medial preoptic nucleus do? What zone is it in?

many things!
hypovolemic thirst and associated responses in bp regulation
sexual behavior


What is the lateral zone of the hypothalamus?

Zone most involved with behavior. No distinct nuclei but many fibers traverse this region.


What are the longitudinal zones of the hypothalamus?

periventricular, medial, lateral


What are the rostrocaudal regions of the hypothalamus?

preoptic region
2. anterior/supraoptic area
3. Tuberal region
4. Mammilar/posterior region


What nuclei are found in the preoptic region of the hypothalamus? What is one thing that is produced diffusely in this region?

medial and lateral preoptic nuclei (medial in thermoreg, sexual behavior, hypovolemic thirst in the medial zone); gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone


What nuclei are found in the anterior/supraoptic hypothalamus?

supraoptic nuclei (vasopressin release)
paraventricular nuclei (preganglionic neurons)
suprachiasmatic nuclei (Circadian rhythms)
anterior hypothalamic area


What nuclei are found in the tuberal region?

dorsomedial nucleus (food intake regulation)
ventromedial nucleus (food intake regulation)
lateral hypothalamus (fibers)
arcuate nucleus (neuroendocrine function)


What nuclei are found in the posterior/mammillary nuclei?

mammillary bodies (memory)
posterior hypothalamic area (