Identity and Personality Flashcards Preview

MCAT Behavioural Sciences > Identity and Personality > Flashcards

Flashcards in Identity and Personality Deck (104):
1

Self-schema

Self-given label that carries with it a set of qualities

2

Self concept

Goes beyond self schema, includes our appraisal of our past and future selves

3

Identity

Individual components of our self-concept that are related to the groups that we belong to
-we have 1 self concept but multiple identities that define who we are

4

Gender identity

Person's appraisal of themselves on the scales of masculinity and femininity
-usually well developed by age 3

5

Androgyny

State of being simultaneously very masculine and very feminine

6

Undifferentiated

State of achieving a low score on both femininity and masculinity

7

Ethnic identity

One's ethnic group in which people share ancestry, heritage, and language

8

Nationality

Defined by political borders
-not necessarily an identity we are born into
-shared history, media, cuisine, national symbols

9

Hierarchy of salience

Dictates which identity holds the most importance for un in a particular situation
-the more salient the identity, the more we conform to the role expectations

10

Self-discrepancy theory

Each person has three selves

1. Actual self: made up of our self concept
2. Ideal self: person we want to be
3. Ought self: representation of the way others think we should be

*the closer these 3 are, the higher our self esteem/self worth

11

Self esteem is a measure of?

How we feel about ourselves

12

Self efficacy is a measure of?

Our belief in our ability to succeed
-too high = overconfidence

13

Learned helplessness

state of hopelessness and resignation resulting from being unable to avoid repeated negative stimuli
-often used as a model of depression

14

Locus of control

Way we characterize the influences in our lives

-Internal: taking responsibility/control of own fate
-External: events are caused by luck/outside influences

15

Freud's theory of Psychosexual development

Libido is present at birth, the driving force of psychological development is the desire to reduce libidinal tension

16

Fixation (freud)

Occurs when a child is overindulged or overly frustrated during a state and develops anxiety
-this leads to a neurosis in adulthood

17

Neurosis

Functional mental disorder caused by fixation in one of the psychosexual development stages

18

Oral stage

0-1 years
-gratification: comes from putting things in the mouth
-fixation: results in being overly dependent as an adult

19

Anal stage

1-3 years
-gratification: elimination/retention of waste materials
-fixation: excessive orderliness or messiness as an adult

20

Phallic stage

3-5 years (also known as the oedipal stage)

Oedipus (or Electra) complex: child envies their same sex parent and wants to possess the opposite sex parent.
-child passes this stage by internalizing morals, establishing sexual identity, and sublimating the libido
-then enters latency

21

Latency

Period after the phallic stage that lasts until puberty

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Genital stage

Puberty- into adulthood

If prior development was normal, person will enter a normal heterosexual relationship

23

Psychosocial development theory

Developed by Erik Erikson

Development of personality is due to a series of crises that derive from conflicts between needs and social demands

24

Trust vs. Mistrust stage

Age 0-1 year
-Success: child trusts themselves and the environment
-Fail: child will often be suspicious of the world

25

Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt stage

Age 1-3 years
-Success: child feels able to exert control over the world, able to exercise both choice and self-restraint
-Fail: sense of doubt, persistent external locus of control`

26

Initiative vs. Guilt stage

Age 3-6 years
-Success: sense of purpose, able to initiate activities, enjoy accomplishment
-Fail: fear of punishment = overly restrictive or show off

27

Industry vs. Inferiority stage

Age 6-12
-Success: feel competent, able to exercise intelligence and capabilities
-Fail: sense of inadequacy, low self esteem

28

Identity vs. Role confusion stage

Age 12-20 - includes the physiological revolution
-Success: fidelity, feel like a unique and integrated person
-Fail: identity confusion, amorphous personality

29

Intimacy vs. Isolation stage

Age 20-40
-Success: Love, intimate relationships, commitment to others and to own goals
-Fail: avoidance of commitment, alienation from others and own ideals (only superficial relationships)

30

Generativity vs. Stagnation stage

Age 40-65
-Success: being productive, caring, contributing member of society
-Fail: becomes bored, self centred, self-indulgent

31

Integrity vs. Despair stage

Age 65+
-Success: wisdom (detached concern with life), dignity, acceptance of death, feelings of a worthwhile life
-Fail: Bitterness about one's life, feeling that life was worthless, fear over death

32

Moral reasoning theory

Developed by Lawrence Kohlberg

Development of personality is linked to the development of moral thinking
-as our cognitive abilities grow, so do our abilities to think about the world in more complex ways

Separated into 3 phases
-each with 2 stages (6 total stages)

33

Preconventional morality
-2 associated stages

First phase, typical of preadolescent thinking
-places emphasis on consequences of moral choice

Stage 1: Obedience
-avoiding punishment

Stage 2: Self-interest (instrumental relativist stage)
-gaining rewards
-reciprocity and sharing (tit for tat)

34

Conventional morality
-2 associated stages

Second phase, develops in early adolescence
-understanding and accepting social rules

Stage 3: Conformity
-seeking approval of others - "good boy and nice girl" orientation

Stage 4: Law and order
-maintains the social order in the highest regard

35

Postconventional morality
-2 associated stages

Third phase, not everyone is capable of achieving
-based on how social mores may conflict with laws

Stage 5: Social contract
-moral rules are conventions that are designed to ensure the greater good
-reasoning is focused on individual rights

Stage 6: Universal human ethics
-decisions should be made in consideration of abstract principles

36

Biosocial development theory

Developed by Lev Vygotsky

Children's internalization of various aspects of culture was what drove cognitive development

37

Zone of proximal development

Skill and abilities that are not fully developed but are in the process of developing (child is able to develop them)
-gaining those skills requires a more knowledgable person (usually parent/adult figure)

38

Theory of Mind

Ability to sense how another person's mind works
-development of this allows us to recognize/react to how others think about us

39

Looking-glass self

The construct created which relies on others reflecting out selves back to ourselves
-relies on the theory of mind

40

Reference group

related concept
-our self concept is often dependent on who we compare ourselves to

41

Personality

Set of thoughts, feelings, traits, and behaviours that are characteristic of an individual across time and place

Identity = who we are
Personality = how we act and react

42

Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic theory of personality

Has a lot of varying ideas
-common: assumption of unconscious internal states that motivate the action of the individual

Freud, Jung....

43

Id


id: basic primal, inborn urges
-controlled by pleasure principle
-primary process: obtain satisfaction now
-wish fulfillment: daydreaming to fulfill need for satisfaction

44

Ego

Operates according to the reality principle
-guides or inhibits the activity of the id to meet demands of objective reality
-secondary process: guiding the id
-postpone the pleasure principle
-organizer of the mind -receives power from the id

45

Superego

Personality's perfectionist
-focused on the needs of the ideal self

Conscience: collection of the improper actions for which a child is punished

Ego-ideal: collection of proper actions for which a child is rewarded

46

3 main stages of access in Freud's psychoanalytic theory

1. Unconscious: thoughts that have been repressed
2. Preconscious: thoughts that we are not currently aware of
3. Conscious: thoughts to which we have access

47

Instinct (freud)

Innate psychological representations of a biological need

Life instincts (eros) - promote quest for survival, sex, thirst

Death instincts (thanatos) - unconscious wish for death and destruction

48

Defense mechanisms

Ego's response to relieve anxiety caused by clash between id and superego
-deny, falsify, or distort reality
-operate unconsciously
-8 different defense mechanisms

49

Repression

Ego forces unwanted thoughts and urges into the subconscious
-unconscious form of forgetting
-aims to disguise unwanted thoughts that may come back into the conscious

50

Suppression

Deliberate, conscious form of forgetting

51

Regression

reversion to an earlier developmental state

52

Reaction formation

Suppressing urges by unconsciously converting them into their exact opposites

53

Projection

Individuals attribute their undesired feelings to others
-many tests make use of projection to gain insight into the patient
-ex: Rorschach inkblot test or thematic apperception test

54

Rationalization

Justification of behaviours in a manner that is acceptable to the self and society

55

Displacement

Transference of an undesired urge from one person or object to another
-ex: being angry at your boss but taking it out on your friend

56

Sublimation

Transformation of socially unacceptable urges into socially acceptable behaviours

57

Carl Jung - differences from Freud in terms of libido

Thought of libido more as psychic energy, not just rooted in sexuality

58

Carl Jung - 2 divisions of the unconscious

1. Personal unconscious: similar to Freud's notion
2. Collective unconscious: shared among all humans
-residue of the experiences of our early ancestors
-build on images and common experiences = archetypes

59

Jungian archetypes

Persona: "mask" we wear in public
-part of the personality that we present to the world

Amina/Animus: sex inappropriate activities (ex: feminine behaviours in males)
-Anima is the repressed female in men
-Animus is the repressed male in women

Shadow: responsible for unpleasant/socially reprehensible thoughts or actions

60

Self (Jung)

The intersection between the collective unconscious, the personal unconscious and the conscious mind

61

Jung saw the self as a....

Mandala- reconciliation of opposites and promotion of harmony

62

Jung's 3 dichotomies of personality

1. Extraversion vs. Introversion

2. Sensing vs. Intuiting

3. Thinking vs. Feeling

63

Projection

Individuals attribute their undesired feelings to others
-many tests make use of projection to gain insight into the patient
-ex: Rorschach inkblot test or thematic apperception test

64

Rationalization

Justification of behaviours in a manner that is acceptable to the self and society

65

Displacement

Transference of an undesired urge from one person or object to another
-ex: being angry at your boss but taking it out on your friend

66

Sublimation

Transformation of socially unacceptable urges into socially acceptable behaviours

67

Carl Jung - differences from Freud in terms of libido

Thought of libido more as psychic energy, not just rooted in sexuality

68

Carl Jung - 2 divisions of the unconscious

1. Personal unconscious: similar to Freud's notion
2. Collective unconscious: shared among all humans
-residue of the experiences of our early ancestors
-build on images and common experiences = archetypes

69

Jungian archetypes

Persona: "mask" we wear in public
-part of the personality that we present to the world

Amina/Animus: sex inappropriate activities (ex: feminine behaviours in males)
-Anima is the repressed female in men
-Animus is the repressed male in women

Shadow: responsible for unpleasant/socially reprehensible thoughts or actions

70

Self (Jung)

The intersection between the collective unconscious, the personal unconscious and the conscious mind

71

Jung saw the self as a....

Mandala- reconciliation of opposites and promotion of harmony

72

Object relations theory

Refers to the representation of parents/caregivers (objects) based on subjective experiences during childhood
-these can affect the interactions we have with others in adulthood (including social bonds and our prediction of how others will act)

73

Humanistic/phenomelogical theory main point

Focuses on the value of the individual
-how healthy people strive towards self actualization

Personality is the result of the conscious feelings we have for ourselves as we attempt to attain our goals

74

Creative self

Force by which each individual shapes his uniqueness and establishes his personality

75

Force Field theory

Developed by Kurt Lewin

Does not focus on past, future, or constraints on personalities (fixed traits, habits...)

Focuses on situations of the present
-how the forces acting on a person in the present moment give the current state of mind
-forces either assist or block the path to attaining goals

76

Alfred Adler's theory of personality - components

Inferiority complex
Style of life
Creative self
Fictional finalism

77

Fictional finalism

An individual is motivated more by the expectations of the future than past experiences
-"life would be perfect if only..."

78

Karen Horney & neuroticism

Dissenting student of Freud

Disagreed with Freud about "penis envy"

Postulated that neurotic personalities are governed by one of 10 neurotic needs that are directed towards making life more bearable

79

Basic anxiety

Inadequate parenting can result in vulnerability and helplessness

80

Basic hostility

Neglect and rejection in parenting can lead to anger, called basic hostility

81

Trait theorists

Prefer to describe individual personality as the sum of a person's characteristic behaviours
-tend to use clusters of behaviours to describe individuals

82

Object relations theory

Refers to the representation of parents/caregivers (objects) based on subjective experiences

83

Humanistic/phenomelogical theory main point

Focuses on the value of the individual
-how healthy people strive towards self actualization q

84

Gestalt therapy

Practitioners taking a more holistic view of the self

85

Peak experiences

Defined by Abraham Maslow as profound and deeply moving experiences in a person's life that have important and lasting effects

86

Personal construct psychology

Developed by George Kelly

An individual acts as a scientist in devising and testing predictions about the behaviour of significant people in his or her life

87

Client centred/nondirective therapy

Developed by Carl Rogers

Thought that people were not slaves to the unconscious nor subjects of faulty learning => have the freedom to control their own behaviour

Therapy was focused on reflecting on problems, generating solutions and having positive action

Rogers developed the ideas of the real and ideal self
-therapy was designed in reconciling differences between the 2

88

Unconditional positive regard

Carl Rogers

Therapy technique where the therapist accepts the client completely in order to promote a positive environment

89

Type theorist

attempt to create a taxonomy of personality types

90

Functional autonomy

where a behaviour continues despite satisfaction of the drive that originally created the behaviour

91

Somatotypes

Idea that personality type was dependent on body type

Proposed by William Sheldon

92

Type A/B

Type A: behaviour that is competitive and compulsive

Type B: generally laid back and relaxed

93

PEN model of personality

Psychoticism: measure of nonconformity/deviance
Extraversion: measure of tolerance for social interaction and stimulation
Neuroticism: measure of emotional arousal in stressful situations

94

Big 5 model of personality (OCEAN)

Openness
Conscientiousness
Extraversion
Agreeableness
Neuroticism

95

Gordon Allport theory

3 basic types of traits or dispositions
-cardinal, central, and secondary
*functional autonomy

96

Cardinal traits

traits around which a person organizes their life

97

Central traits

Major characteristics of a person's personality that are easy to infer

98

Secondary traits

Personal characteristics that are more limited in occurrence
-only appear in certain situations

99

Behaviourist perspective

BF skinner

based heavily on the concepts of operant conditioning
-personality is a reflection of behaviours that have been reinforced over time

100

Token economies

Often used in therapies to reward positive behaviour
-tokens can be exchanged for privileges, treats, etc
-operant conditioning technique

101

Social cognitive perspective

One step further than the behaviourist approach
-Albert Bandura

Central idea is reciprocal determinism
-idea that our thoughts, feelings, behaviours and environment all interact to determine our actions in a given situation

Locus of control is another important part of this theory

102

Biological perspective

Personality can be best explained by a genetic expression in the brain

103

Dispositional approach

Behaviour is primarily determined by an individuals personality

104

Situational approach

Behaviour is primarily determined by the environment and context