Social Thinking Flashcards Preview

MCAT Behavioural Sciences > Social Thinking > Flashcards

Flashcards in Social Thinking Deck (69):
1

Interpersonal attraction

phenomenon of individuals liking each other
-affected by similarity, self-disclosure, proximity, reciprocity

2

Self disclosure

sharing thoughts, feelings, fears, goals etc.

3

Reciprocal liking

Phenomenon when people like others better when they believe that the person likes them back

4

Mere exposure effect

aka familiarity effect
-people prefer stimuli that they have been exposed to more frequently

5

Agression

defined as any behaviour that intends to cause harm or increase social dominance
-can be physical, verbal, or non verbal

Offers protection against perceived or real threats

6

Part of the brain responsible for associating stimuli and their rewards or punishments?

The amygdala

7

Reduced activity in the ____ is linked to increased aggressive behaviour

Prefrontal cortex

8

Cognitive neuroassociation model

We are more likely to respond to other aggressively when we are feeling negative emotions
-such as being tired, frustrated, in pain, or sick.

9

A secure parent is...?

Consistent, available, comforting, and responsive

10

Secure attachment

•Child has a consistent caregiver
•Child will be upset if caregiver leaves/comforted when they return
•Can be comforted by others but prefers parent
•Child is able to go out and explore

11

Avoidant attachment

Results when the caregiver has little or no response to the distressed child
•Children show no preference between strangers and their caregiver
•Shows no distress when the parent leaves or any relief when the caregiver returns

12

Ambivalent attachment

Occurs when the caregiver has an inconsistent response to the child's distress
•Child is unable to form a secure base
•Child is very distressed when the caregiver leaves but has a mixed response upon their return
•Child is anxious about the reliability of the caregiver

13

Disorganized attachment

No clear pattern of response to the caregiver's absence or presence
-associated with erratic behaviour and social withdrawal of the parent
-also reg flag for potential abuse

14

Emotional support

listening, affirming and empathizing with someone's feelings

15

Esteem support

Affirming the qualities and skills of a person

16

Material/tangible support

Any type of financial or material contributions to another person

17

Informational support

Providing information that may help someone

18

Network support

Type of social support that gives a person a sense of belonging

19

Mate Bias

How choosey members of a species are while choosing a mate

20

Phenotypic benefits

Observable traits that make a potential mate more attractive to the opposite sex

21

Sensory bias

Development of a trait to match a pre-existing preference within the population

22

Fisherian/Runaway selection

The positive feedback mechanism in which a particular trait that has no effect on survival becomes more and more exaggerated over time
-ex: peacock feathers

23

Indicator traits

traits that signify overall good health and well being to a potential mate

24

Genetic compatibility

The creation of mate pairs that, when combined, have complementary genetics
-mechanism for the reduced frequency of recessive genetics disorders

25

Altruism

Form of helping behaviour that benefits the recipient at a cost to the donor

26

Cooperation

Where both the recipient and the donor benefit from the action

27

Spite

Both the donor and the recipient are negatively affected

28

Selfishness

The donor benefits while the recipient is negatively impacted

29

Inclusive fitness

Measure of an organism's success in the population
-based on # of successfully supported offspring & the ability of those offspring to then support others

30

Social perception

aka. social cognition

Tools to make judgements about other people and situations

3 primary components: perceiver, target, and situation

31

Perceiver

Influenced by experiences, motives, and emotional state

32

Target

Person about which the perception is being made

33

Impression Bias

Focuses on how our selection of cues helps us form interpretations of others that are consistent over time

34

Primacy effect

First impressions are often more important than subsequent interactions/impressions

35

Recency effect

The most recent information we have about someone is the most important in forming our impression

36

Reliance on central traits

Individuals tend to organize the perception of others based on personal characteristics of the target that are most relevant to the perceiver

37

Implicit personal theory

There are a set of assumptions people make about how different people are related to their traits/behaviours
-making assumptions based on the category they are in is called stereotyping

38

Halo effect

Cognitive bias in which judgements about a specific aspect of an individual can be affected by one's overall impression of the individual
-why people tend to be inaccurate when evaluating people to be generally good or bad
-attractiveness can also produce the halo effect

39

Just-World hypothesis

Cognitive bias that assumes good things happen to good people and bad things happen to bad people
-leads to victim blaming as there can be no innocent victims
-consequences are a result of a universal force

40

Self-serving bias

aka self-serving attributional bias

Individuals will view their own success based on internal factors while viewing failures based on external factors
-used to protect our self-esteem
-strangers engage in it more than close friends

41

Self enhancement

Focuses on the need to maintain self worth and can be done through the internal attribution of successes and external attribution of errors

42

Attribution theory

Focuses on the tendency for individuals to inter the causes of other people's behaviour

43

Dispositional (Internal) attributions

Those that relate to the person whose behaviour is being considered
-their attitudes, beliefs, personality

44

Situational (external) attributions

Those that relate to the features of the surroundings
-threats, social norms, money, peer pressure

45

Consistency cues

Consistent behaviour of a person over time
-the more they perform that behaviour, the more we associate that with their motives

46

Distinctiveness cues

the extent to which a person engages in similar behaviours across a series of similar scenarios

47

Consensus cues

Relate to the extent to which a person's behaviour differs from others

48

Correspondant inference theory

When are person unexpectedly performs an action that either helps or hurts us, we are more likely to explain the action with dispositional attribution

49

Fundamental attribution error

We are generally biased towards making dispositional attributions rather than situational attributions
-its the person rather than the situation

50

Attribute substitution

Occurs when individuals must make complex judgements but instead they apply a heuristic or a simpler solution
-common when dealing with size and colour in optical illusions

51

Cultural attribution

Culture is another important factor in attribution

Individualist cultures put a high value on personal goals an independence
-more likely to attribute behaviour to disposition

Collectivist cultures place high value on conformity and interdependence
-more likely to attribute behaviour to situation

52

Stereotypes

Viewed as cognitive

Occur when attitudes and impressions are based on limited and superficial information about a person or group of individuals

53

Stereotype content model

Attempts to classify stereotypes with respect to their hypothetical group using two dimensions
-warmth (not in competition with the attributer) and competence (groups with high status)

54

Paternalistic stereotypes

Those in which the group is looked down upon as inferior, dismissed, or ignored

High: warmth
Low: competence

Ex: disabled and elderly people

55

Contemptuous stereotypes

Those in which the group is viewed with resentment, annoyance, and anger

Low: warmth & competence

ex:Homeless and poor people

56

Envious stereotypes

Those in which the group is viewed with jealousy, bitterness, or distrust

Low: warmth
High: competence

ex: asians, jews, feminists, rich people

57

Admiration stereotypes

Those in which the group is viewed with pride and other positive feelings

High: warmth and competence

ex: other people in the group and close allies

58

Self-fulfilling prophecy

Stereotypes can lead to expectations of certain groups of individuals, which creates condition that lead to the confirmation of these expectations

59

Stereotype threat

Concept of people being concerned or anxious about confirming a negative stereotype about their social group
-can reduce performance
-vulnerability to this depends on how highly the person identifies with the stereotyped group

60

Prejudice

Irrational positive or negative attitude toward a person, group, or thing prior to any actual experience with that entity

61

Propaganda

way in which large organizations and political groups attempt to create prejudices in others

62

Power

ability of people or groups to achieve their goals despite any obstacles AND their ability to control resources

63

Prestige

Level of respect shown to a person by others

64

Class

Refers to socioeconomic status
-unequal distribution of power, money, prestige, and resources can lead to have and have-not groups

65

Ethnocentrism

Practice of making judgements about other's cultures based on the values and beliefs of one's own culture

66

In-group

Defined as a social group in which a person experiences a sense of belonging or identifies as a member

67

Out-group

A social group with which an individual does not identify

68

Cultural relativism

Perception of another culture as different from one's own but with the recognition that the cultural values, mores etc. fit within that culture
-certain values etc. are not superior, just different between cultures

69

Discrimination

Occurs with prejudice attitudes result in individuals to act in a certain way and for members of a certain group to be treated differently from others