Psychological Disorders Flashcards Preview

MCAT Behavioural Sciences > Psychological Disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Psychological Disorders Deck (88):
1

Biomedical approach

Therapy is focused around symptom reduction
-narrower than other approaches
-can miss things such as lifestyle causes

2

Biopsychosocial approach

Assumes that there are biological, psychological, and social components to an individuals disorder
-using indirect therapy and direct therapy

3

Direct therapy

treatment that acts directly on the individual
-meetings with a psychologist or medication....

4

Indirect therapy

Aims to increase social support by educating and empowering family members and friends of the patient

5

disorder with highest % affected

specific phobia
-then social anxiety and major depressive disorder

6

Schizophrenia - general description

Prototypical psychotic disorder

Need to show signs of disturbance for at least 6 months with at least one month of active symptoms

7

Positive symptoms

Behaviours, thoughts, feelings added to normal behaviour
-delusions & hallucinations (psychotic dimension)
-disorganized thought & behaviour (disorganized dimension)

8

Negative symptoms

Absence of normal behaviours

9

Delusions

False beliefs discordant with reality
-not shared by others in an individuals culture (must be deviant to be considered delusions)
-maintained despite evidence to the contrary

10

Delusions of reference

belief that common elements in the environment are directed at the individual

11

Delusions of persecution

Belief that the person is being deliberately interfered with or plotted against in some way

12

Delusions of grandeur

Belief that the person is special or remarkable in some way
*also present in Bipolar I

13

Thought broadcasting

Belief that one's thoughts are being broadcast to the world

14

Thought insertion

Belief that thoughts are being placed into one's head

15

Hallucinations

Perceptions that are not due to external stimuli but have a compelling sense of reality

16

Most common form of hallucination

Auditory

17

Disorganized thought

Characterized by a loosening of associations
-rapid shifting of ideas

Word salad - loss of structure to speech

18

Neologism

New words invented by someone with schizophrenia

19

Disorganized behaviour

Inability to carry out activities of daily living
-paying bills, keeping appointments etc.

20

Catatonia

Motor behaviours that are extreme in both senses
-either maintaining an extremely rigid posture or useless and bizarre movements

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Echolalia

Repetition of another's words
-form of catatonia

22

Echopraxia

Imitation of another's actions
-form of catatonia

23

Negative symptoms

Include disturbances of affect and avolition

24

Affect

experience and display of emotion

25

Blunting

Severe reduction in the intensity of affect expression

26

downward drift hypothesis

Schizophrenia causes a decline in socioeconomic status
-this leads to worsening of symptoms
-begins a negative spiral towards poverty and psychosis

27

Flat affect

Virtually no signs of emotional expression

28

Inappropriate affect

Affect is clearly discordant with the content of the individuals speech

29

Avolition

Decreased engagement in purposeful-goal directed activities

30

Prodromal phase

Period before a diagnosis of schizophrenia
-marked with poor adjustment, social withdrawal, peculiar behaviour, inappropriate affect
-followed by a period of active symptoms

*note: if onset is quicker, prognosis is better*

31

Major depressive disorder

Mood disorder categorized by at least 1 major depressive episode
-period of at least 2 weeks of 5 of the following
•prominent and persistant depressed mood*
•anhedonia *
•appetite disturbances
•decreased energy
•feelings of worthlessness
•substantial weight changes
•sleep disturbances
•difficulty concentrating or thinking
•psychomotor symptoms
•thoughts of death or suicide

32

Dysthymia

Depressed mood not severe enough to meet the criteria for a major depressive episode

33

anhedonia

loss of pleasure or interest in activities once found enjoyable

34

Persistant depressive disorder

Individuals who suffer from dysthymia most of the time during a 2 year period

Also applies to individuals suffering from MDD for 2+ years

35

Seasonal affective disorder

Major depressive disorder with seasonal onset
-may be related to abnormal melatonin metabolism
-can be treated with bright light therapy

36

Bipolar I

Presence of manic episodes with or without major depressive episodes

37

Manic episodes - signs and symptoms (DIG FAST)

Abnormal and persistent elevated mood for 1+ week
-has at least 3 of the following
•Distractible
•Insomnia
•Grandiosity
•Flight of ideas (racing thoughts)
•Agitation
•Speech (pressured)
•Thoughtlessness (risky behaviour)

More rapid onset than depressive episodes
•may include psychotic symptoms

38

Hypomania

Typically does not impair functioning to the same degree as mania NOR are there psychotic symptoms

Individual may be more energetic and optimistic

39

Bipolar II

Hypomania with at least 1 major depressive episode

40

Cyclothymic disorder

Combination of hypomanic episodes and dysthymia

41

Monoamine / catecholamine theory of depression

Revolves around the 2 neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine
-high levels = mania
-low levels = depression

42

Most common psychiatric disorder for women?

Anxiety disorders

43

Generalized anxiety disorder

Disproportionate and persistent worry about many things
-lasting at lest 6 months
-can have physical symptoms like muscle tension, sleep problems and fatigue

44

Specific phobias

Most common type of anxiety disorder

Irrational fear of something to the point that you are compelled to avoid it

Focused on a specific object or situation

45

Social anxiety disorder

Persistent fear when exposed to a social situation or performance situation

46

Agoraphobia

Anxiety disorder characterized by a fear of being in places or situations where it might be hard for the person to escape

47

Panic disorder

Repeated occurrence of panic attacks, periods of:
•fear and apprehension
•trembling
•sweating
•hyperventilation
•sense of unreality
•"sense of impending doom"

Frequently accompanied by agoraphobia because of the fear of having a panic attack while in public

48

Obsessive compulsive disorder

Obsessions: intrusive thoughts and impulses
Compulsions: repetitive tasks that relieve the tension caused by the obsessions
•cause significant impairment in a persons life

49

Body dysmorphic disorder

Unrealistic negative evaluation of bodily appearance
-usually directed towards a certain body part

50

Post traumatic stress disorder

Occurs after experiencing or witnessing a traumatic event
-intrusion symptoms, avoidance symptoms, negative cognitive symptoms, and arousal symptoms that are present for at least 1 month

51

Intrusion symptoms

Recurrent reliving of the event
•flashbacks
•nightmares
•prolonged distress

52

Avoidance symptoms

Deliberate attempts to avoid objects, places, people associated with the trauma

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Negative cognitive symptoms

•inability to recall key features of the event
•negative mood or emotions
•feeling distanced from others
•persistent negative view

54

Arousal symptoms

•Increased startle response
•irritability
•anxiety
•self destructive/reckless behaviour
•sleep disturbances

55

Acute stress disorder

Same symptoms of PTSD lasting less than 1 month but longer than 3 days

56

Dissociative disorders

Avoids stress by escaping from their identity
-otherwise has an intact sense of reality

Examples:
•dissociative amnesia
•dissociative identity disorder
•depersonalization/derealization disorder

57

Dissociative amnesia

Inability to recall past experiences
-not due to a neurological disorder

58

Dissociative fugue

Sudden, unexpected move or purposeful wandering away from one's usual routine
-can be confused about identity or assume a new identity

59

Dissociative identity disorder

where 2 or more personalities recurrently take over the personality of the individual
-components of identity fail to integrate
-usually the person suffered physical or sexual abuse as a child

60

Depersonalization/Derealization disorder

Depersonalization: Individuals feel detached from their own mind and body
-out of body experience
-failure to recognize one's own appearance

Derealization: Individuals feel detached from their surroundings
-world has a dreamlike quality

61

Somatic symptom disorder

Have at least 1 somatic symptoms (bodily) that may or ma not be linked to another condition but is accompanied with disproportionate concerns about its seriousness

62

Illness anxiety disorder

Patient is consumed with thought about having or developing a serious medical condition

63

Conversion disorder

characterized by unexplained symptoms affecting voluntary motor or sensory functions
-usually appear after high levels of stress or a traumatic event

ex: paralysis or blinding without any neurological cause

*la belle indifférence - patient is not concerned

64

Personality disorder

Behaviour that is inflexible and maladaptive
-causes distress or impaired functioning in at least 2 of: cognition, emotion, impulse control, interpersonal

Ego-syntonic or ego-dystonic

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Ego-syntonic

Individual perceives their behaviour as a result of the personality disorder as being correct

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Ego-dystonic

Individual sees the personality disorder as something that is thrust upon them and is intrusive

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Cluster A disorders

Paranoid, schizotypal, and schizoid personality disorders

Marked by behaviour that is odd or eccentric

"weird" cluster of disorders

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Cluster B disorders

Antisocial, Borderline, Histrionic, and Narcissistic personality disorders

Marked by behaviour that is dramatic, emotional, or erratic

"Wild" cluster of disorders

69

Cluster C disorders

Avoidant, Dependent, and Obsessive-Compulsive personality disorders

Anxious or fearful behaviour is exhibited

"worried" cluster of disorders

70

Paranoid personality disorder

Marked by a pervasive mistrust of people
-can indicate the prodromal stage of schizophrenia

71

Schizotypal personality disorder

Pattern of odd or eccentric thinking
-can have ideas of reference (not as extreme as delusions)
-and magical thinking - superstition or belief in magic

like the + symptoms of schizophrenia

72

Schizoid personality disorder

Pervasive pattern of detachment from social relationships and a restricted range of emotions
-few friends and poor social skills

Like the - symptoms of schizophrenia

73

Antisocial personality disorder

Pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others AND lack of remorse for these actions
-3x more common in males
-many serial killers or prolific criminals have this disorder

74

Borderline personality disorder

Pervasive instability in interpersonal behaviour, mood, and self image
-often fear of abandonment
-lack of security in self image, sexuality, goals, values
-suicide attempts and self harm are common
-may use splitting as a way to cope

75

Splitting

Defense mechanism for individuals with borderline personality disorder in which the view others as either ALL good or ALL bad
-angel vs. devil mentality

76

Histrionic personality disorder

Constant attention seeking behaviour
-exceptionally extroverted and dramatic

77

Narcissistic Personality disorder

Grandiose sense of self-importance and uniqueness
-constant need for admiration and attention
-fantasies of success
-feeling of entitlement in interpersonal relationships etc.
-very fragile self esteem

78

Avoidant personality disorder

Extreme shyness and fear of rejection
-sees themselves as socially inept and isolated despite desire for social affection
-stay in the same job, relationship, etc. despite wanting change

79

Dependent personality disorder

Continuous need for reassurance
-tend to be dependent on one specific person

80

Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder

Perfectionist and inflexible, tends to like rules and order
-lack of desire to change
-excessive stubbornness
-maintenance of careful routines
-lack of sense of humour

81

Biological causes of Schizophrenia

Most potential causes are genetic

Trauma at birth - hypoxemia

excessive marijuana use as a teenager

Excess of dopamine in the brain
-drugs to treat it block dopamine receptors

82

Biological causes of Depressive disorders

•Abnormally high glucose metabolism by the amygdala

•Hippocampal atrophy (after long duration of illness)

•Abnormally high levels of glucocorticoids

•Decreased: norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine

83

Biological causes of Bipolar disorders

•Increased: norepinephrine and serotonin (mania)

•Higher risk if parent is bipolar (genetic)

•Higher risk for persons with MS

84

Biological causes of Alzheimer's - genetics

Mutations in the presenilin genes on chromosomes 1 and 14 contribute to having the disease

Mutations on the apolipoprotein E gene on chromosome 19 contribute the the likelihood of getting the disease

Mutations on the ß-amyloid precursor gene on the chromosome 21 is known to contribute to it

85

Biological marker of Alzheimer's diagnosis

•Flattened sulci in the cerebral cortex
•Enlarged ventricles
•Deficient blood flow in the parietal lobes = cognitive decline
•Reduction in acetylcholine AND in choline acetyltransferase (makes acetylcholine)
•Reduced metabolism in the temporal and parietal lobes
•Plaques of ß-amyloid
•Neurofibrillary tangles of tau protein

86

ß-amyloid

misfolded protein in ß-pleated sheet form that forms plaques in Alzheimer's patients

87

Parkinson's disease - signs and symptoms

Bradykinesia - slowness in movement

Resting tremor - appears when muscles are not in use

Pill-rolling tremor- tremor of the fingers as if rolling something between them

Masklike facies - facial expression with static and expressionless features (open mouth, wide eyes)

Cogwheel rigidity - muscle tension that halts movement

Shuffling gate with stooped posture

88

Parkinson's disease - biological basis

Decreased dopamine production in the substantia nigra
-layer of cells in the brain that permit proper functioning of the basal ganglia
-basal ganglia are needed to initiate and terminate movement

Common drug is l-DOPA, precursor that is converted to dopamine in the brain