Social Stratification Flashcards Preview

MCAT Behavioural Sciences > Social Stratification > Flashcards

Flashcards in Social Stratification Deck (35):
1

Social class

category of people who share a similar socioeconomic position in society

2

Social stratification

product of one's socioeconomic status and both ascribed status and earned status

3

Prestige

Amount of positive regard society has for a given person or idea

4

Power

Ability to affect other's behaviour through real or perceived rewards and punishments
-based on the unequal distribution of valuable resources

5

Class consciousness

Organization of the working class (proletariat) around shared goals and recognition of a need for collective political action

6

False consciousness

The biggest barrier to class consciousness
-misperception of one's actual position within society

7

The rise of capitalist economies has lead to...?

•increase in social inequality
•reduction in social cohesion
•waning of social capital

8

Anomie

Refers to a lack of social norms
-breakdown of social bonds between an individual and society

Can include:
-excessive individualism
-social inequality
-isolation

9

Strain theory

Focuses on how anomic conditions can lead to deviance

In the past decades, the urbanization, materialism, and isolation of society has lead to a decline in social capital

10

2 sources of social trust

1. Social norms of reciprocity (scratch my back, ill scratch yours etc. )

2. Social networks

11

Social capital

The investments people make in their society in return for economic or collective rewards
-one of the main forms is social network

12

2 types of social inequality formed by networks

1. Situational - socioeconomic advantage

2. Positional - based on how connected one is in a network / one's centrality in that network

13

Inequality in networks reinforces ____?

Privilege

14

Strong ties

peer to peer and kinship contacts
-quantitatively small but qualitatively powerful

15

Weak ties

Social connections that are personally superficial but provide connections to a wide range of other individuals

16

Intersectionality

The compounding of disadvantage seen in individuals who belong to more than one appressed group

17

5 ethnicities model

White, Black, Asian, Latino, and Native American
-widely seen as an oversimplification

18

Social mobility

In a class system, social mobility is typically the result of an economic and occupational structure allowing one to acquire higher-level employment
-not directly correlated with education

19

Intragenerational changes

Changes in social status that occur within a person's lifetime

20

Intergenerational changes

Changes in social status that are passed from parents to children

21

Meritocracy

Merit based system of social mobility
-based on individual talent and achievement

22

Poverty

Defined by low socioeconomic status and a lack of possessions or financial resources

23

Social reproduction

The idea that inequality, especially poverty, can be passed on from one generation to the next

24

Social exclusion

Can arise from the sense of powerlessness when individuals feel segregated and isolated from society

25

Spatial inequality

focuses on social stratification across territories and their populations
-how does geography influence how resources are distributed?

26

Residential segregation

Where a person lives can greatly affect how they interact with others, cooperate and advance in society

27

Suburbanization

Migration patterns of the middle classes to suburban environments/communities

28

Urban decay

A previously functional part of the city becomes decrepit and derelict over time

29

Urban renewal

Spontaneous reversal of urban decay - land is reclaimed and renovated
-usually fuelled by gentrification

30

Incidence

Number of new cases of an illness per population AT RISK in a given amount of time

31

Prevalence

Measure of the # of cases of an illness overall (new and chronic) per population in a given time

32

Morbidity

Burden or degree of illness associated with a given disease

33

Mortality

Refers to the deaths caused by a given disease

34

John Snow report

Looked into cholera epidemic in London (1854)
-found that a contaminated water pump was the source of illness

35

Second sickness

Exacerbation of health outcomes caused by social injustice
-professional people have longer life expectancies than working class people