Social Processes, Attitudes, and Behaviour Flashcards Preview

MCAT Behavioural Sciences > Social Processes, Attitudes, and Behaviour > Flashcards

Flashcards in Social Processes, Attitudes, and Behaviour Deck (57):
1

Michelangelo effect

Concept of the self is made from the intrapersonal self (ideas the individual has about themselves) and the interpersonal self (manner in which others influence the creation of the ideal self)

2

Social action

Defined by Max Weber as actions and behaviours that individuals are conscious of and are performing because others are around

3

Social facilitation

The observed phenomenon where people perform better on simpler tasks when in the presence of others

4

Yerkes-Dodson law of social facilitation

Being in the presence of others raises arousal significantly, which enhances the ability to perform tasks one is already good at (simple tasks) but hinders one's ability to perform less familiar (complex) tasks

5

Deindividualization

Individual behaviour can be dramatically different in social environments
-presence of the group provides anonymity and causes a loss of individual identity
-can lead to antinormative behaviour

6

Antinormative behaviour

Behaviour that is against the norm for an individual
-explains why violent behaviour is seen in crowds and riots

7

Bystander effect

Phenomenon observed in social groups where individuals are less likely to intervene and help a victim if other people are present
-in a group people are less likely to notice something is wrong
-people also take cues from other people
-in low danger scenarios people are less likely to intervene than in high danger scenarios
-if the people in the group know each other they are more likely to act

8

Social loafing

Tendency for individuals to put in less effort when a group setting than individually

9

Peer pressure

Social influence place on an individual by a group of people or another person

10

Peers

sociologically they are considered individuals who are equals within a social group

11

Identity shift effect

When an individuals state of harmony is disrupted by a threat of social rejection, the individual will often conform to the norms of the group
-causes internal conflict
-the individual then adopts the norm of the group as their own to eliminate the sense of conflict

12

Cognitive dissonance

Simultaneous presence of two opposing thought or opinions
-usually leads to an internal state of discomfort

13

Social interaction

explores the way in which two or more individuals can both shape each other's behaviour

14

Group polarization

Tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the individual ideas of the group members
-either more risky or more cautious
-initial ideas tend not to be extreme but they become so by discussion within the group

*also called choice shift*

15

Groupthink

Social phenomenon in which desire for harmony or conformity results in a group of people coming to an incorrect or poor decision
-consensus is reached without alternate ideas being considered
-loss of independent critical thinking

16

8 factors that are indicative of groupthink

1. Illusion of invulnerability - encouragement of risk taking
2. Collective rationalization - ignoring warnings that oppose the ideas of the group
3. Illusion of morality - belief that the ideas are morally correct
4. Excessive stereotyping
5. Pressure for conformity - opposition is disloyalty
6. Self-censorship - withholding of opposite views
7. Illusion of unanimity
8. Mindguards - appointment of members to the role of protecting against opposing views

17

Fad

Behaviour that is transiently viewed as popular/desirable by a large community

18

Mass hysteria

shared, intense concern about the threats to society
-shows many features of groupthink

19

Cultural assimilation

Process by which an individual's or group's behaviour and culture begin to resemble that of another group
-generally one group hold more power and influence
-4 primary factors that determine level of assimilation:
•language attainment
•intermarriage
•socioeconomic status
•geographic distribution

20

ethnic enclaves

locations (neighbourhoods) with a high concentration of one specific ethnicity \
-helps slow the progress of assimilation
-more common in urban areas

21

Multiculturalism

Communities or societies containing multiple cultures
-encourages, respects, and celebrates cultural differences

22

Subcultures

Groups of people within a culture that distinguish themselves from the primary culture to which they belong
-can be perceived as negative when they subvert the majority culture's definition of normalcy (counterculture)

23

Socialization

process of developing, inheriting, and spreading norms, customs, and beliefs

24

Cultural transmission/cultural learning

The way in which a society socializes its members

25

Cultural diffusion

The spread of norms, customs, and beliefs (especially new ones) throughout a culture

26

Primary socialization

Initial learning of acceptable actions and attitudes during childhood
-usually from observing parents and other adults

27

Secondary socialization

Process of learning acceptable behaviours within smaller sections of the larger society
-happens outside the home
-typically adolescents and adults
-smaller changes and refinements to existing behaviour

28

Anticipatory socialization

when a person prepares for future changes in occupation, habitation, or relationships
-ex: a couple living together in preparation for married life

29

Resocialization

Where one discards old behaviours in favour of new ones to a make a life change
-can be positive or negative

30

Norms

societal rules that define the boundaries of acceptable behaviour
-provide a mechanism for regulating behaviour

31

Mores

widely observed social norms

32

Sanctions

Penalties for misconduct used to maintain social control
-incarceration or fines
-corporal punishment (bodily harm or infliction of pain)
-capital punishment

33

Taboo

things that are considered socially unacceptable or gross

34

Folkways

Norms that refer to behaviour that is considered polite in particular social interactions

35

Deviance

any violation of norms, rules, or expectations within a society
-also any action that meets with disapproval from the larger society

36

Social stigma

extreme disproval or dislike of a person or group based on perceived differences from the rest of society

37

Labelling theory

Labels given to people affect not only how others respond to that person buy also the person's self image
-can result in the person's behaviour conforming or becoming more deviant

38

Differential association theory

Deviance van be learned through interactions with others

differential association: the degree to which one is surrounded by ideal that adhere to norms or ideals that go against them

Someone will favour deviant behaviour if associations with deviant people outnumber non deviant people

39

Strain theory

Explains deviance as the natural reaction to the disconnect between social goals and social structures

40

Conformity

matching one's attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours to societal norms

also known as majority influence

41

Internalization

changing one's behaviour to fit with a group while also privately agreeing with the ideals of the group

Ex: Stanford prison experiment

42

Identification

outward acceptance of other's ideas without personally takin on these ideas

43

Compliance

change of behaviour in response to a direct request
-person asking typically has no or little authority

44

Foot in the door technique

Technique to gain compliance where a small request is made and, after gaining compliance, a larger request is made

45

Door in the face technique

Opposite of the foot in the door compliance technique

A large request is made and then, if denied, a smaller more reasonable request is made

46

Lowball technique

Requestor gets an initial commitment from an individual but then he raises the cost of the commitment

47

That's not all technique

Compliance technique where an individual is made an offer but before deciding, is told that the offer is even better than she expected

48

Obedience

Changing one's behaviour in response to a direct order from an authority figure

ex: Stanley Milgram and the shock experiment

49

Social cognition

Focuses on the ways in which people think about others and how these ideas impact behaviour

50

Attitude - 3 components and definition

expression of positive or negative feelings towards a person, place, or scenario

3 components of attitude
•Affective: the way a person feels towards something
•Behavioural: the way a person acts towards something
•Cognitive: the way a people thinks about something

51

Functional attitudes theory

Attitudes serve 4 functions

1. Knowledge: attitudes help provide organization to thoughts and experiences

2. Ego-expressive: help communicate our self-identity

3. Adaptive: help to be socially accepted

4. Ego-defensive: help to protect self-esteem (especially if we are bad at something)

52

Learning theory

Says that attitudes are developed though different forms of learning
-either direct or indirect learning (doing vs being told)

53

Elaboration likelihood model

Separates individuals on a continuum based on their processing of persuasive information
-either central or peripheral route processing

54

Central route processing

Thinking deeply about information, scrutinizing, and drawing conclusions

55

Peripheral route processing

Focusing of superficial details of persuasive information

56

Social cognitive theory

People learn how to behave and shape their attitudes by observing the behaviour of others
-direct observation and replication, not trial and error

57

Bandura's triadic reciprocal causation model

3 factors: behaviour, personal factors, and environment influence each other