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MCAT Behavioural Sciences > Social Interaction > Flashcards

Flashcards in Social Interaction Deck (45):
1

Statuses

Positions in society used to classify individuals
-exist in relation to other statuses
-3 key types

2

Ascribed status

One that is given involuntarily
-like race, ethnicity, gender, or family background

3

Achieved status

One that is gained by effort and/or by choices

4

Master status

Status by which a person is most often identified
-often how people view themselves
-has symbolic value

5

Role

Set of beliefs, values, attitudes, and norms that define the expectations for someone holding a certain status

6

Role performance

Carrying out the behaviours associated with a given role
-can change based on the situation or context
-some people are better at it than others

7

Role partner

Person with which someone is interacting (while in their role)

8

Role set

Various roles associated with a status

9

Role conflict

Difficulty of satisfying the requirements of multiple roles

10

Role strain

Difficulty in satisfying multiple requirements of the same role

11

Role exit

Dropping one role/identity for another

12

Group

Two or more people who share similar characteristics and a sense of unity

Share things like:
-values, ethnicity, social background, family ties, politics

Can provide protection, safety, and support
-as well as a place to belong/be accepted

13

Peer group

Association of self selected equals of similar ages, interests, and statuses
-opportunity for friendship

14

Family group

Not self selected: determined by birth, adoption and marriage
-joins people of multiples generations via emotional ties

15

In groups

Groups to which an individual belongs

16

Out groups

Groups with which an individual competes or is in opposition

17

Reference groups

groups that establish terms by which individuals evaluate themselves
-eg: comparing yourself to other med school applicants

18

Primary group

Interactions are direct

Close bonds provide warm and personal relationships

Often last long periods of time
-close friends or tight knit family

19

Secondary group

Interactions are superficial with few emotional bonds

Last a short period of time
-people working on a project together

20

Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft theory

Translates to community and society

Community: groups united by feelings of togetherness
-shared beliefs, ancestry, or geography
-families and neighbourhoods

Society: groups that are formed because of mutual self-interests & working towards the same goal
-companies and countries

21

Dyads

2 membered group
-smallest group size

22

Interaction process analysis

Technique for observing, classifying and measuring the interactions within small groups
-revised later to SYMLOG

23

SYMLOG

System for multiple level organization of groups

Based on the belief that there are 3 dimensions to interactions
1. Dominance vs. Submission
2. Friendliness vs. Unfriendliness
3. Instrumentally controlled vs. Emotionally expressive

24

Group conformity

Individuals are compliant with the groups goals even if they oppose their own personal goals in an attempt to be accepted

25

Groupthink

Occurs when members of a group begin to focus solely on the ideas generated within the group and ignore outside ideas

26

Network

Observable pattern of social interactions and relationships among individuals in a group

Can be used to study the actions of individuals and groups as well as the broader social structure

27

Organizations

Entities that are set up within cultures to achieve specific goals
-have structure and culture

28

Formal organizations

Different from groups in many ways
-continue even if an individual leaves
-have expressed goals
-have enforcement procedures to control member activity
-have formal roles or duties

29

Characteristic institution

Basic organization of society
-modern is bureaucracy

30

Bureaucracy

Rational system of political organization, administrations, discipline or control
-tend to be slow to change and less efficient than other kinds of organizations

31

Iron law of oligarchy

the democratic or bureaucratic system naturally shifts to being governed by an elite group

32

McDonaldization

Common term to refer to the shift in focus towards efficiency, predictability, calculability, and control in societies

33

Self-presentation

Process of displaying oneself through culturally accepted behaviours

Also called impression management

34

Basic model of emotional expression

Established by Darwin

Says that emotional expression depends on
-facial expression
-behaviours
-posture
-vocal changes
-physiological changes

Based on evolution he thought that it should be consistent across cultures

35

Social construction model

Assumes that there is no biological basis for emotions
-they are based on experiences and the situational context
-certain emotions can only be present within social contexts
-emotions are different across cultures

36

Display rules

Cultural expectations of emotions

37

Cultural syndrome

shared set of beliefs, attitudes, norms, values and behaviours among members of the same culture
-organized around central theme
-influences rules for expression or suppressing emotions

38

Impression management

attempts to influence how others perceive us
-regulation of information in social situations

39

Authentic self

Describes who the person actually is
-both positive and negative attributes

40

Ideal self

who we would like to be under optimal circumstances

41

Tactical self

Who we market ourselves to be
-adhere to other's expectations

42

Dramaturgical approach

Metaphor of theatrical performance to describe how individuals create images of themselves in various situations

43

Front stage self

the actor (individual) is in front of the audience and performs a certain way according to the setting, role, and script

44

Back stage self

where the individual is not being observed by an audience
-can act in ways not necessarily congruent with his desired public image

45

Animal communication

Defined as any behaviour of one animal that affects the behaviour of another