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Flashcards in Immigration Deck (14)
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Canadian demographic trend

- Aging population: by 2025, close to 25% of Canadian population will be over 65
- Low fertility: for the past 10 years, the fertility rate has been consistently below 2.1
- Death rate will eventually match birth rate
- Canada's death rate is climbing, not because of bad healthcare or anything, but just because we have a lot of elderly people
- Going back to the demographic equation, immigration has to stay the same or increase in the future to sustain the population


immigrant categories

- economic class (4 types - ex. points systems, investment class, live-in caregivers)
- family class (sponsorship -> leads to stratified ethnic communities)
- Refugees (2 broad types - Apply for asylum here; Apply for asylum before you come to Canada)
- Others (Temporary workers (note that they are NOT considered economic class); Students)


what does immigration policy do

- Primarily an economic policy
- Addresses the needs of the labour market
- Englarges domestic market
- Build foreign relations and trade
- Raises living standards (Attracts tourism due to culture and diversity)


how does immigration policy address the needs of the labour market?

- Fills labour shortages (ex. Historically, Chinese immigrants were encouraged to help build the railroad)
- Increases tax base (the more people we have, the more people we can tax)
- Immigration fuels this and fuels rise of housing prices, but not in the way you'd think as it's also facilitated by locals -> people rent out their basements to immigrants to help them afford expensive houses -> if there was nobody to rent to, nobody could afford expensive houses, so the prices would have to go down


how does immigration enlarge domestic market?

Ex. Richmond -> many Chinese businesses started because people had to invest in something here in order to gain citizenship


refugees in Canada

- Admitting refugees is a relatively new phenomenon (started in the '70s)
- Our refugees tend to do better than those in the US because of the programs we have to support them
- Refugees can be productive provided they have the right support


immigration in Canada (historically and now)

- Over 60% are economic immigrants
- Numerous revisions since 1900s
- Prior to the 1960's, for the most part, only European immigrants were allowed in Canada
- In the 60's, although the Europeans who were coming were white (ie. Italian), they still faces a lot of discrimination
- In 1967, our immigration policy opened up by eliminating the racial/ethnic origin preference
- Currently the top countries that immigrate to Canada are China, India, and the Philippines
- Select immigrants based on age, education, training, and occupational demands -> 30-55 year-olds are ideal age
- Criteria and passing grade has changed over time (currently, pass = 67)


current points system in Canada

based on:
- english and/or french skills
- education
- experience
- age
- arranged employment in Canada
- adaptibility
- pass: 67/100


Canada's ethnic landscape

- 4 main categories from 2011 Census:
1) First nations (4%): North American Indian, Inuit, Metis
- Charter group (E – 18%, F – 14%): English, French
- Other European groups (45%): Irish, Scottish, Germans, Italians, Polish
- Visible minorities (19%): Chinese, South Asians, Latin Americans, Blacks


how to look at group dynamics

in order to look at group dynamics, we have to compare the group of interest to another group


visible minority population in Canada

- Present: according to the 2011 census, Canada has over 6 million people (20%) who identified themselves as a member of visible minority groups
- Prediction: by 2031, 30% of population will belong to a visible minority group


Employment Equity Act - brings employment equity for:

- Women
- Persons with disabilities
- Aboriginal people
- Members of visible minorities -> people who aren't white or aboriginal
- however, private sectors don't have to abide by the EEA


visible minorities in Canada (affected by what?)

- Their proportion in Canada mainly effected by immigration policies -> grew after 67 exponentially once we stopped prohibiting entry based on nationality or country of origin
- Fast growing, mostly foreign-born, concentrate in major cities (MTV)


visible minorities compared to non-visible minority groups

- Higher unemployment rate
- More likely to live below low-income threshold
- Earn less income (even after controlling for personal and work characteristics)
- Less likely to vote
- Canadian-born visible minorities experience higher rates of violent victimization
- Higher fertility rates