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Flashcards in Gender & Sexuality Deck (35)
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- Biological (nature)
- Anatomy, hormones, fertility
- Ascribed



- Cultural and social (nurture)
- Norms and values
- Achieved


gender socialization

- Socialization is the process by which an individual learns to integrate into their culture
- Most of our social behaviour in society doesn't operate on the differences of biological sex
- Rather, our social behaviour is mostly guided by gender which guides our basic social identities as either men and women, both of which are socially constructed
- Social expectations that are guided by these identities are called gender roles


gender roles

- The social definition of men and women
- Expectations regarding the proper behaviour, attitudes, and activities of men and women
- They guide our everyday behaviour and interaction with others - "doing gender"
- Gender roles are achieved through socialization


agents of gender socialization

- Family: gendered clothes (blue for boys, pink for girls); gendered toys (boys get trucks = power, strength; girls get dolls = self-preservation, nurturing) -> encourage different types of behaviour
- School: children's books encourage gender roles (ie. Doctor characters are male, nurse characters are female); more male school sports teams (especially at college level)
- Peer group: doing gendered activities with friends (ie. Shopping for girls, playing video games for guy)
- Mass media: movies and TV - stereotypical female roles, female happiness dependent on men
- Workplace: "female" caregiver-style jobs vs. "male" non-emotional jobs
- State: most countries only have maternity leave


consequences of living in a gendered world

- Men and women have different opportunities and access to resources
- In most societies, men enjoy a higher social position and economic power
- Contributes and maintains a patriarchal system



A male-controlled system of power in which the males processes superior power and economic privilege


gender inequality women experience

- Women have lower levels of education
- Women have lower earnings (wage gap) - women make 75 cents for every dollar a male makes
- Women are more likely to experience violence
- Women have less power in society


why do women make less money than men?

- More men enter higher-paying STEM fields
- Females have less job opportunity, so lose any negotiation leverage; men are more likely to have mentors
- More men work full-time or run their own business


why is it untrue that women experience inequality because "they're biologically inferior"?

- Women live longer than men
- No difference has been shown in IQ
- Men and women can perform the same tasks
- Biological differences cannot account for social differences


functionalist perspective on gender differences

- Gender differentiation contributes to social stability
- Men take on the instrumental role goal oriented task, concerns for external relationship between one’s family and other social institutions
- Women take on the expressive role emotional oriented task, concern mostly for internal affairs within the family i.e. maintenance of harmony


conflict perspective on gender differences

- Gender differentiation contributes to social inequality
- Instrumental and expressive roles are not equally rewarded; the relationship between men and women is therefore one of unequal power
- Men are in a dominant position over women; men are like the capitalists (with resources) while women are like the proletariat who are exploited for their labour (little paid for work done)


historical advancements of gender equality

- World wars: women joined the labour force due to a shortage of men in the country
- Expansion of the university system: women were also pursuing higher education
- Contraceptive technology: women have more control over fertility


Canadian women in the workforce today

- Majority of women over 16 have jobs
- A third of women 18-24 are in university (there are more women going to university than men)
- Over a quarter of women are senior managers


Women in Canada today

- Women still experience oppression as a group
-- Under-represented in positions of power
-- Under-represented in high-paying jobs
-- Expected to perform domestic labour
-- Continue to be seen as sex objects
-- The prevalence of rape culture


rape culture

where sexual violence or violence against women is normalized


glass ceiling

- Invisible barrier that blocks promotion of qualified individuals in work environment because of a person's gender, race, or ethnicity
- Has a maximum earning capacity; not unlimited


second shift

- Double burden that working women face
- Work outside the home followed by childcare and housework
- Few men share this equitably


status of women worldwide

- Gender disparities exist in access to education, work opportunities, health, personal security, and leisure time
- Fewer girls attend school than boys in the developing world
- Feminization of labour has become a global phenomenon (ie. Nannies and live-in caregivers)
- Women usually work in occupations with lower status and pay than men; female proletarianization
- Women are continuously being exploited in other areas, including the sex industry


how gender equality affects social change

- Change in family structure (less people getting married, cohabitation increasing, divorce more common, decreased fertility)
- Consumption habits: more power within the household (women are more likely to buy new cars than men)
- Criminal behaviour: proportion of female offenders is increasing


gender identity

the extent to which one identifies as masculine or feminine based on how much they associate with gender roles


dichotomous view of gender

- notion that one is either male or female
- not universal -> some cultures have multiple genders


sexual orientation

- one's emotional and sexual attraction to a particular sex
- typically divided into 4 categories: heterosexuality, homosexuality, bisexuality, and asexuality (no attraction to either sex)
- We live in a heteronormative society


Kinsey Scale

created by Alfred Kinsey to conceptualize sexuality as a continuum rather than a dichotomy



- non-sexual same-sex relations (ie. hugging, holding hands, closeness, etc.)
- women experience more fluidity and freedom to express homosocial feelings than men


Legal milestones for LGBT community in Canada

- Civil Marriage Act (2005): Legalized same-sex marriage by describing marriage in gender-neutral terms
- Canadian Human Rights Act amendment (1996): Explicitly prohibits discrimination based on sexual orientation


transgender vs. transexual

- transgender: identify with the gender role that is the opposite of their biological sex
- transexual: transgender people who alter their bodies so they're aligned with their gender identity


institutional discrimination

discrimination that is built into the social structure


feminist theory

- type of critical sociology that examines inequalities in gender-related issues
- uses the critical approach to examine the maintenance of gender roles and inequalities


bifurcated consciousness

when women perceive a disconnect between their personal experiences and the way the world is represented by society as a whole (ie. they experience the world one way but they're also forced to see it through the way of the dominant group - men)