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Lyon & Frohard-Dourlant: What is the paper trying to explain?

- Why Canadian same-sex couples choose not to get married
- How Canadian same-sex couples view marriage


Lyon & Frohard-Dourlant: What groups are being compared or being studied?

22 same-sex couples in Toronto


Lyon & Frohard-Dourlant: What were the key findings?

- Marriage is framed as an ultimate form of commitment
- Couples chose not to marry either due to personal preference or due to marriage equality debates
- Couples had contradictory feelings towards marriage
- People talked more emotionally about getting married, but talked more politically about not getting married


Marriage is viewed as a form of commitment (Lyon & Frohard-Dourlant findings)

- Married couples seen as more legitimate than common-law
- Felt like marriage would increase social support and acceptance
- Serious lifelong commitment
- Implies monogamy and children


Why couples chose not to marry (Lyon & Frohard-Dourlant findings)

- individual differences: Some feel like marriage isn't a big deal -> feel indifferent
- Some are ideologically opposed to marriage and its heterosexist underpinnings


Breton: What is the paper trying to explain?

- interpersonal relationships of immigrants and whether they take place in different directions (ie. Spread out over multiple communities)
- To what extent does the ethnic community determine direction of interpersonal integration?


Breton: What groups are being compared or being studied?

230 male immigrants in Montreal


Breton: What were the key findings?

- Stronger ties to ethnic community than native community, but these ties weaken and strengthen respectively over time
- Ethnic communities with high institutional completeness have much greater proportion of people strongly tied to ethnic group (majority of relations are with people in ethnic group)
- Religious associations have greatest effect in keeping immigrant's personal associations within the boundaries of the ethnic community, then publications (welfare organizations have least effect)
- Differences exist in the development of ethnic institutions between people who immigrated individually and those who were part of a larger wave of immigrations


What is institutional completeness? (Breton findings)

- containing various organizations (religious, educational, political, recreational, etc.) for its community members to use
- high institutional completeness = when ethnic community can perform all services its members need (ie. members don't need to use any native institutions)


Social organizations that influence interpersonal relationships (Breton findings)

- Community of his ethnicity
- The native/receiving community
- Other ethnic communities


Li: What is the paper trying to explain?

The current approaches toward immigrant integration


Li: What were the key findings?

- Current integration standards not very inclusive – often measures how much immigrants conform to Canadian norms
- Immigrants' tendencies to maintain differences (ie. Language, ethnic neighbourhoods) are perceived as negative and opposing integration


Li: What is being compared/studied?

The discourse of integration in Canada


Li: What suggestions did the researcher make based on the findings?

- Integration should be a 2-way street: rather than measuring how well immigrants compare to current Canadians, it should also measure how well Canada performs towards newcomers
- Canada needs to make changes in order to give newcomers the right to be different and challenge the status quo rather than forcing them to conform and confine to it