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Flashcards in Groups Deck (24)
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1

group

any collection of at least 2 people who interact with some frequency and share a sense of identity

2

aggregate/crowd

people who are in the same place at the same time, but don't interact or share an identity (ex. people in a line at Starbucks)

3

category

people who share similar characteristics but aren't tied to each other in another way (ex. Millennials)

4

2 types of groups

primary and secondary

5

primary groups

- most critical
- fairly small
- made up of people who engage face-to-face in long-term emotional ways (ie. significant others, family)
- serves emotional needs

6

secondary groups

- larger, impersonal
- task-focused and time-limited
- serve an instrumental function
- ex. classroom, office

7

core discussion group

- close social contacts
- people you choose to spend free time with, people you discuss important personal matters with

8

in-group vs. out-group

- in-group: group you feel you belong to; an integral part of who you are
- out-group: a group you don't belong to; may feel disdain or competition towards

9

reference group

group people compare themselves to (ex. peer groups, family, etc.)

10

dyad vs. triad

- dyad: 2-member group; if one withdraws group ceases to exist (ex. divorce); closer but more unstable
- triad: 3-member group; if one withdraws group lives on; 2-against-1 dynamics may happen, not as close (third wheel)

11

social network

collection of people tied together by configuration of connections (ex. number of people involved, who is connected to whom, etc.)

12

large groups

- too many people to join in simultaneous discussion, or when the group unites with another group
- larger groups garner more attention, but also have higher risk of lack of cohesion

13

leadership in small vs. large groups

- small (primary groups): informal
- large (secondary groups): overt

14

2 leadership functions

- instrumental: goal-oriented, concerned with accomplishing tasks (ie. CEOs)
- expressive: promote emotional strengths, health, and support (ie. social and religious leaders)

15

3 leadership styles

- democratic: encourage group participation and consensus in decision-making
- laissez-faire: hands-off, allows group members to make own decisions
- authoritarian: issues orders and assigns tasks to meet goals

16

glass ceiling

invisible barrier that prevents women from achieving positions of leadership

17

conformity

extent to which an individual complies with group norms or expectations (ie. Milgram study, Soloman Asch study)

18

formal organization

- large, impersonal secondary group deliberately organized to achieve its goals efficiently (ex. businesses, government)
- often bureaucratic

19

buraucracy

- ideal type of formal organization
- uses hierarchy of authority and clear division of labour
- impersonal
- meritocracies -> hiring and promotion are based on skills rather than nepotism or random choice
- oligarchies -> ruled by a few elites

20

3 types of formal organizations

- normative/voluntary: based on shared interests; membership is rewarding (ie. ski club)
- coercive: people are pushed to join (ie. rehab) -> usually total institutions
- utilitarian: join for specific material reward (ex. work, school -> money, diploma)

21

total institution

living a controlled lifestyle; total resocialization takes place (ie. prison)

22

hierarchy of authority

aspect of bureaucracy; places one individual in charge of another, who in turn must answer to their own superirors

23

clear division of labour

within a bureaucracy, each person has a specialized task to perform

24

McDonaldization of society

- increasing presence of the fast-food business model in social institutions
- model includes efficiency, predictability, calculability, and control/monitoring