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Stage 4 Immunology > Immune System 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Immune System 1 Deck (49)
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1

What is a pathogen?

Any organism with the ability to cause disease

2

What are the 4 types of pathogen?

Bacteria

Virus

Fungi

Parasites (protozoa, worms)

3

Define: Immunogen

a molecule that causes the immune system to make a response

4

Define: antigen

part of immunogen that reacts with the immune effector cells or soluble antibodies

5

Define: epitope

part of the antigen that reacts with immune effector cells or soluble antibodies

6

Define: polymorphonuclear leukocyte

Immune cell containing granules with enzymes which are released during infection, allergic reaction of asthma.

Examples: oesinophils, neutrophils, basophils

7

What are the two (immune) cell classes found in bone marrow?

Myeloid cells

Lymphoid cells

8

Name 1 cell from each category of myeloid cells

1) Antigen presenting cells:
monocyte, macrophage, dendritic cell

2) Polymorphonuclear leukocytes:
basophil, neutrophil, oesinophil

3) mast cell

9

Which are the small lymphocytes?

B cells

T cells

10

Which are the large lymphocytes?

NK cells

NK = natural killer

11

Name the TWO primary lymphoid organs.

Bone marrow

Thymus

12

Name the SIX secondary lymphoid organs.

Spleen

Adenoids

Tonsils

Appendix

Lymph nodes

Peyer's patches

13

Where do B cells originate and mature?

Bone marrow

14

Which cells originate in the BONE MARROW?

B cells - mature in it
T cells - leave immature

15

Where is the THYMUS located?

Just above the heart

16

Where do T cells migrate to mature ?

Migrate from bone marrow to the THYMUS to mature

Progress from cortex to medulla during differentiation

17

In which sites do mature lymphocytes activate in response to invading pathogens?

Secondary lymphoid tissues

18

Where do lymph nodes lie?

At the junction of the network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS

19

What is the role of lymphatic vessels ?

- They collect the plasma fluid (lymph) which continuously leaks from blood vessels

- Lymph (fluid) returns to the blood vessles via the thoracic duct

20

What is the largest lymphatic vessel in the human body?

Thoracic duct

(75% of the body's lymph (fluid) passes through it)

21

How do lymphocytes meet the pathogen?

Move from capillaries --> lymph nodes to meet pathogen

22

What are lymphocytes?

A type of immune cell.
(Lymphocytes consist of B- T- and NK- cells)

Others include macrophages/monocytes, neutrophils

THESe ARE ALL TYPES OF WBCs!

23

Which cells in immune system produce variable, slow and highly specific immune response?

Lymphocytes

24

What is part of the immediate innate response ?

Defensins

Complement

25

What are the responses derived from complement activation?

Opsonisation

Inflammation

Lysis of pathogen

Activation of B cell

26

Which 3 factors are part of the innate immune response?

Barriers

Antimicrobial peptides

Complement system

27

Name the 4 antimicrobial peptides

Histatins

Cathelicidins

Defensins

Lectins

28

Which antimicrobial peptide is produced in the oral cavity and is involved in wound healing of the oral cavity

Histatins (short histidine peptides)

29

Which antimicrobial peptide is against fungi?

Histatins

30

Which antimicrobial peptides are against bacteria only?
(2 items)

Cathelicidins

Lectin