Flashcards in Immunity, Vaccines, Superantigens II Deck (18)
Compare the means of acquisition in passive vs active immunity.
Passive immunity is acquired by receiving preformed antibodies; active immunity is acquired by exposure to foreign antigens (p.202)
Compare the onset of immunity in passive vs active immunity.
Passive immunity has rapid onset; active immunity has slow onset (p.202)
Compare the duration of passive vs. active immunity.
Passive immunity expresses antibodies with a short half life (approx. 3 weeks); Active immunity confers long lasting protection through memory (p.202)
Name three examples of passive immunity.
IgA in breast milk, antitoxin, humanized monoclonal antibody (p.202)
Name three examples of active immunity.
Natural infection, vaccines, toxoid (p.202)
After exposure to what four toxins/ diseases are patients given preformed antibodies via passive immunity?
Tetanus toxin, botulinum toxin, HBV, Rabies virus (p.202)
After exposure to what two toxins/ diseases can patients be given combined active and passive immunizations?
Hepatitis B, Rabies exposure (p.202)
What type of immune response is induced by vaccinations?
Vaccines induce an active immune response (humoral and/or cellular) to specific pathogens (p.202)
What is a live attenuated vaccine?
A vaccine where the microorganism has lost its pathogenicity but retains its capacity for transient growth within the innoculated host (p.202)
What is an inactivated or killed vaccine?
A vaccine where the pathogen is inactivated by heat or chemicals. The immune response is generated by a maintained epitope structure on pathogen surface antigens (p.202)
What are the pros of live attenuated vaccines?
Induces stong, often life long immunity (p.202)
What are the cons of live attenuated vaccines
May revert to virulent form (p.202)
What are the pros of inactivated or killed vaccines?
Stable and safer than live vaccines (p.202)
What are the cons of inactivated or killed vaccines
Confers a weaker immune response and booster shots are usually required (p.202)
Name six examples of live attenuated vaccines.
Measles, mumps, polio (Sabin), rubella, varicella, yellow fever (p.202)
Name four examples of inactivated or killed vaccines.
Cholera, hepatitis A, polio (Salk), rabies (p.202)
What type of immune response is induced by a live attenuated vaccine?
A cellular response (p.202)