At what thoracic levels does the IVC originate and terminate? How does this compare to the aorta?
IVC L5-T8, Aorta T12-T4
How does the IVC lie relative to the aorta?
The IVC runs to the right of the aorta, lying on the lumbar vertebral bodies.
What are the other significant other anatomical relations of the IVC?
The IVC overlaps the sympathetic trunk and crosses the right renal artery. It lies 2.5cm to the right of the midline of the inter tubercular line???? to t.5cm right of xiphisternum??
How do tributaries approach the aorta?
Lower down the tributaries lie posterior, more superiorly the tributaries lie anterior
How is the IVC placed in the infracolic compartment?
It lies behind the peritoneum, crossed by the root of the mesentery and D3
How is the IVC placed in the supracolic compartment?
In the supracolic compartment the IVC lies behind the portal vain, head of pancreas, bile duct and posterior slit of EF??? to the bare area of the liver.
How to tributaries relate to aortic branches?
They are not analogous. Blood from the GI track, pancreas, and spleen is collected into the portal venous system.
Describe the common iliac vein and its immediate tributaries
The common iliac vein is formed infront of the sacroiliac joint by the external and internal iliac veins. These travel up behind the arteries. The left CI is longer than the right C iliac.
Other than external and internal iliac veins, what other tributaries does the common iliac receive?
Iliolumbar +/- lateral sacral. The left usually receives the median sacral artery.
What accompanies the 4th and 3rd lumbar veins?
Arteries draining the lateral and posterior abdominal wall (behind the sympathetic trunks).
What do the 2nd and 1st lumbar arteries drain into?
The ascending lumbar vein. “each unites common iliac vein and iliolumbar vein passing upwards behind psoas in front of the lumbar transverse processes
Describe the course of the ??ascending lumbar vein
Each unites CIV and ILV passing upwards behind psoas in front of the lumbar transverse processes. The right side passes through the aortic opening. The left perforates the left crus.
What joins the ascending lumbar vein? What do they become?
The subcostal veins, to form the azygous (right) and hemiazygous (left) veins.
List the tributaries of the IVC
External iliac Internal iliac 4th and 3rd lumbar veins Gonadal veins Renal veins Right lumbar azygous vein Right suprarenal vein Inferior phrenic veins Hepatic veins
Describe the course of the gonadal veins
These are usually paired, then later unite. On the right the vein usually enters the IVC but may enter the renal vein. On the left, the left gonadal joins the left renal vein
Which renal vein is the longest? By how much?
The left renal vein is three times as long as the right
What does the left renal vein cross? What tributaries does it have?
The left renal vein crosses the aorta. It receives suprarenal and gonadal veins, +/- the inferior phrenic artery.
What and where is the right lumbar azygous vein?
The right lumbar azygous vein is a small vessel (+/- obliterated) that connects the posterior IVC with the azygous vein. It lies at renal vein level, behind psoas.
What and where is the right suprarenal vein?
The right suprarenal vein is a short stout vessel entering the IVC behind the bare area of the liver - here the gland lies in contact with the liver and the IVC.
Where are the inferior phrenic veins found?
The inferior phrenic veins accompany their arteries and join the IVC just below the diaphragm.
Name the hepatic veins. What do they drain? Where do they enter the IVC?
Left, central and right hepatic veins enter the vena cava as it grooves the back of the liver. The central vein drains both halves.