Influenza Flashcards Preview

ICM Infectious Disease > Influenza > Flashcards

Flashcards in Influenza Deck (50):
1

What makes up Influenza virus?

Different segments of RNA

2

How many main types of influenza are there?

3 (A,B,C)

3

What does influenza A act on?

Humans and animals, causes pandemics

4

What does influenza B act on?

Human, doesn't cause pandemics

5

What does influenza C do?

Mild disease

6

What are the 2 surface proteins that are targets for neutralization?

Hemaglutinin
Neuraminidase

7

How many hemaglutinins are there?

15

8

How many neuraminindases are there?

10

9

Why does Influenza have a high mutation rate?

They are RNA viruses

10

What changes in Influenza from year to year?

Sequence of H1 and N1 proteins

11

Changing surface proteins from year to year is called what?

Antigenic drift

12

How many genes are encoded on one strand of RNA

1

13

How do viruses gain new genes?

During virus envelope formation gene segments from other viruses can incorporate themselves.

14

What is it called when new hemagglutinin or neuraminidase genes are obtained?

Antigenic shift

15

Animal responsible for origin and spread of influenza to other animals?

Duck

16

Where did spanish flu come from?

Bird to human

17

Next anticipated pandemic?

Novel H1N1

18

How long will a strain of influenza circulate?

Unpredicatable

19

How is influenza transmitted?

Large droplets like sneezes and coughs

20

Limiting factor of transmission?

Large droplets don't stay in air so close contact needed

21

Does it remain on surfaces?

Not important for transmission

22

Can you get influenza from pork or chicken meat?

No

23

How does influenza present?

Fever, headache, myalgia, and fatigue

24

What are not typical features of influenza?

Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea

25

What causes Reye's syndrome?

Giving aspirin to kids

26

Most common causes for secondary bacterial infection pneumonia?

Step pneumonia and staph aureus

27

Most common cause of death in Spanish Flu?

Bacterial pneumonia

28

What happened with vaccines made from killed bacteria used on Spanish Flu?

it helped (improved mortality rates)

29

Who does the "Bird Flu"/H5N1 affect?

Children and young adults

30

Presentation of H5N1?

Respiratory illness, but also diarrhea and neurologic problems

31

Who was affected by Avian Influenza H7N9 in 2013?

Elderly

32

How do you diagnose Influenza?

Rapid antigen tests

33

Gold standard for diagnosis?

Viral culture, but takes days

34

What is the best diagnostic test?

RT-PCR, expensive

35

Which antiviral is used for treatment?

None of them work great

36

Why aren't Amantadine or Rimantadine used anymore?

All strains are resistant to it

37

New treatments?

Neuraminidase inhibitors Oseltamivir and Zanamivir

38

When do these neuraminidase inhibitors need to be given by?

within 48 hours of symptom onset, reduces symptoms by 1-2 days

39

How is Zanamivir given?

Oral inhalation, but IV available

40

How is it determined which strains will be predominant in upcoming flu year?

Educated guesses

41

How long does it take to make vaccines?

9 months

42

Where are vaccines grown?

Eggs

43

What is done with egg containing virus?

Purified and virus inactivated with formaldehyde

44

What constitutes a "split" vaccine?

Vaccine that separates Hemagglutinin and neuraminidase surface proteins in vaccine for less side effects

45

What is a trivalent vaccine?

Vaccine with two A strains and 1 B strain

46

Quadrivalent strain?

Vaccine with two A strains and 2 B strains

47

What complication was noticed with vaccines in 1976?

Guillain-Barre

48

What do you give for people allergic to eggs?

Cell culture based vaccine

49

Does live attenuated vaccine give better protection?

Not proven

50

Who are vaccines most effective for?
Least effective?

Children
>65 elders