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Flashcards in Information Management Deck (298)
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1

Computer

Electronic device that receives, manipulates, and stores data.

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Computer Classification

According to size: Generally, larger computers have greater storage capacity and faster processing times.
- Supercomputer
- Mainframe
- Minicomputer
- Microcomputer

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Supercomputer

Large, complex computer system capable of performing rapid, complex functions, such as national defense and weather forecasting and research.

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Mainframe

Large computer capable of handling hundreds of users.

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Minicomputer

Medium-sized computer that can handle multiple users.

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Microcomputer

Desktop personal computer (PC).

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Hardware

Physical computer equipment.

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Central processing unit (CPU)

Collection of three components that process data.
- Control Unit (CU)
- Arithmetic logic unit (ALU)
- Primary storage unit (PSU)

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Control unit (CU)

It doesn't perform the actual data processing, it supervises the data processing operations. The CU performs the following:
- Retrieving: obtains instructions from the primary storage unit.
- Decoding: translate the instructions into language the computer understands.
- Executing: carries out the instructions.
- Storing: Results of the instructions are stored in the primary storage unit (PSU).

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Control Unit- Retrieving

Retrieving:
- Obtains instructions from the primary storage unit.

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Control Unit- Decoding

Decoding:
- Translate the instructions into language the computer understands.

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Control Unit- Executing

Executing:
- Carries out the instructions.

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Control Unit- Executing

Executing:
- Carries out the instructions.

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Control Unit- Storing

Storing:
- Results of the instructions are stored in the primary storage unit (PSU).

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Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)

Processes the data in two ways.
- Arithmetic operations
- Logic operations

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Arithmetic operations

Mathematical calculations involving addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

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Primary Storage Unit (PSU)


Main computer memory that stores data and program instructions.
- Random access memory (RAM)
- Read only memory (ROM)

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Primary Storage Unit (PSU)

Main computer memory that stores within the CPU that is lost once power is discontinued.

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Random Access Memory (RAM)

Temporary memory within the CPU that is lost once power is discontinued.

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Random Access Memory (RAM)

Temporary memory within the CPU that is lost once

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Read Only Memory (ROM)

Permanent memory within the CPU installed by the manufacturer that allows the computer to carry out its operations.

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Input devices






Allows for the input of data into a computer.
- Keyboard
- Mouse
- Trackball
- Joystick
- Digitalized tablet
- Light pen (wand)
- Scanners

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Input devices-

Keyboard:
- Allows for the input of alphanumeric data.

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Input devices- Keyboard

Keyboard:
- Allows for the input of alphanumeric data.

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Input devices- Mouse

Mouse:
- Handheld device that, when moved across a flat surface, moves the cursor to any spot on the monitor screen.

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Input devices- Trackball

Trackball:
- A ball embedded in the base when rolled, moves the cursor on the screen.

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Input devices- Joystick

Joystick:
- A vertical stick embedded in a base that moves the cursor in the direction the stick is moved.

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Input devices- Digitalized tablet

Digitalized tablet:
- A pressure sensitive pad that produces on the screen any outline drawn on the pad.

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Input devices- Light pen (wand)

Light pen (wand):
- A pen that is sensitive to the light emanating from the screen. When placed close to the screen, it can control the cursor and activate various functions.

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Output devices


Allows for data to be displayed or recorded.
- Monitor
- Printer
- Plotter