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What are the pre-harvest stages?

Feed, housing, hygiene, treatment


Wha this the harvesting stage?

- collecting
- milking
- slaughter
- cutting cold store


Post harvest stages

- Processing
- transport
- storage


What is food security defined as?

When all people at all times have access to sufficient are nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life
> food availability (sufficient quantities on a consistent basis)
- production
- distribution
- exchange
> food access (sufficient resources to obtain appropriate food)
- affordability
- allocation
- preference
> food use (appropriate use based on knowledge of nutrition, care, water and sanitation)
- nutritional value
- social value
- food safety [VETS ACT HERE]


Is a good proportion of uk food sourced locally? What does this mean?

- 60% sourced uk-good proportion sourced abroad
- global demand to feed growing and richer population increasing faster than supply
-> not sustainable /reliable in the future
- may see higher price volatility wrt climatic events etc. Eg. Drought


What is 'food systems' concept?

- other outcomes
- some contribute to food security and other social, economic, environment, and welfare issues
- eg. Rural development employment environment
> activities and outcomes = food systems
- more holistic approach, broader concept


Was the horse meat scandal a food safety issue?

- not really
- more fraudulent labelling for financial gain (horse meat cheaper)
- increasingly complex and globalised food chain -> fradsters took advantage of weakness in the system


What came from the horse meat scandal?

- July 2014 report
" fraud in the food industry" huge profits and low risks food crime prevention until needed


What is the general food law?

- creates general principle and requirements of food law across EU
- objective:
- protect public health, protection consumers interests, fair practice including animal health and welfare, plant health and environment
- free movement. Of food and feed in the EU
- facilitate global trade


What does the issue of transparency mean wrt the general food law?

- transparency of decision making to increase consumer confidence
- food safety and protection of consumer interests are of importance to the general public, NGOs, professional associations international trading partners and trade organisations
> effective public consultations during food law
> obligation on public authorities to inform general public if there are reasonable grounds to suspect food may present a risk for human or animal health


Risk analysis principle wrt risk analysis principal

Scientific and technical evaluations undertaken by European food safety authority (EFSA) based on principle of risk analysis established by general food law regulation
- strong science must underpin measures relating to food safety
> risk analysis
- risk assessment
- Rick management
- risk communication


What is risk analysis comprised of?

- assessment
- risk management.
- risk communication


What risk based approaches are used to underpinEU law?

> zero risk approach attractive but NOT POSSIBLE
> determine level of practical achievable risk
- priority setting
- selection of prevention strategies


Pre harvest risk

- control of animal feed
- good farm amanagement
- animal health
- not to achieve complete eradication of food-borne pathogens but to minimise risk of food borne illness


What is involved in Harvesting and post-harvest risks

- commodity processing
- rawmaterial
- manufacturing presentation
- consumer handling


What is Risk management

- the prcess (distinct from risk assessment) of weighing policy alternatives (in consultation with all interested parties) considering risk assessment and other factos and selecting appropriate prevention and control options


Who has responsibility of risk management in production of animal derived food?

> Food business operator (FBO)
- focus on harvest phase : slaughter and milking
- tracebility
- microbiological criteria
> competent authority
- enforcement of legislation, verification and auditing of FBOs
> consumr
- safe handling of food at home


What is slaughter

= meat harvesting
- meat: edible parts of domestic ungulates, poultry, lagomorphs, wild game and farmed game, including blood
- skeletal muscle with naturally included or attached tissue with limits for the amount of fat and connective tissue allowed


Steps of slaughter

- stunning
- sticking (blood)
- evisceration (organs - gut contents)
- splitting, dressing (hide , hair, feathers, hoofs)
- chilling
- cutting, de-boning (bones, muscles, meat - SRM)


How can meat be contaminated in the slaughter house?

> muscles of a healthy animal are sterile. Contamination greatest risk from GIT and hide
- equipment, bio aerosols and hands are all routes of infection (not just direct contact)


What are FBOs responsible for?

- ensuring food they produce is safe to eat by implementing food safety management procedures and adequate working practices
> main strategies
- HACCP (hazard analysis and critical control point)
- Good Manufacturng Practices (GMP)



> hazard analysis and critical control point
- all FBOs except farmers required (EU law) to implement hygiene procedures based on HACCP
- FBOs must ID food safety hazards (biological, chemical,physical) then prevent, eliminate or reduce to an acceptable level
> planning(deide and document what needs to be done)
> doing (implement action plan)
> checking (monitor HACCP and document)
> acting (taking action when food safety at risk and documenting it)


7 principles of HACCP protocol

1. Hazard analysis
2. ID critical control points
3. Establishing critical limits at each CCP
4. Monitoring of each CCP
5. Corrective actions at each CCP
6. HACCP verification/validation
7. HACCP documentation


Outline an eg, of HACCP points for pork slaughter.

HA: salmonella
CCP: scalding process to v bacterial count


What are GMPs?

> good manufactoring practice (not as specific as HACCP)
- quality procedures in place to ensure integrity of production prices
- defined by SOPs (standard operating procedures)
- GMPs necessary to safety and suitability of food referred to as good hygiene practices (GHPs) defined by sanitation SOPs (SSOPs)
- hazards not significant enough to be controlled by HACCP may be controlled by GMPs


Eg. GMP and GHP

- all personel must be appropriately trained, qualified and motivated for their responisibilities
- lighting, ventilation, humidity must be at appropriate levels at each stage so the safety and quality of the poduct is protected
- 2 knife technique used for all tasks which involve opening hide or fleece followed by cutting away hide or fleece from cascase
- colour coded knives for easy recognition
- spear cut away from carcase where possible


What is milk?

Normal mammary secretion of milking animals obtained from one or milk ings without either addition to it or subtraction from it
- intended for consumption as liquid milk or for further processing


Who's responsibility is it to ensure milk borne hazards are not contaminating milk?

> FBO (milk producer)


Key sources of contamination of milk

> microbiological
-exterior surfaces of animal, faecal contamination
- milking equipment/hands
- interior of the udder if mastitis nto detected
> chemical
- veterinary product residues
- cleaning chemicals
> physical
- perished components in milking machines and bulk tanks
- dust
- bedding
- insects


Outline on farm risk management of milk

> Animal health
- no udder lesions likely to contaminate
- no TB or Brucella
- no zoonoses
> ANimal cleanliness
- clean teats and udders
- good housing to accommodate this
> Milking area and process
- hygienic conditions
- clean hands, teats and udders before milking
- examine milk from each animal and reject abnormalities
- use teat dips
> equipment, milk storage, staff
- clean and good condition
- immediately after milking clean
- protect milk from contamination during transfer and storage , cool quickly
- bulk tank cleaned after each milk collection
- storage tanks sealed to prevent physical contamination
- control insect and vermin
- train staff and keep records (feed supplies, vet products)