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PTA 105 Growth and Development > Intro to Human Development > Flashcards

Flashcards in Intro to Human Development Deck (34)
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1

changes in human performance dependent on maturation

development

2

multidisciplinary study on how people change and remain the same over time

human development

3

quantitative/measurable changes that occur over time e.g. height, weight, etc.

growth

4

qualitative changes related to growth; physical, emotional and intellectual development

maturation

5

acquisition of a new skill/behavior related to interaction with the environment; involves repetition and practice

learning

6

ability/process to anticipate and react to a stimulus by modification

adaptation

7

biopsychosocial framework: genetics and lifestyle factors

biological

8

biopsychosocial framework: cognitive, emotional, peronality, perceptual factors

psychological

9

biopsychosocial framework: racial, cultural, societal, ethnic factors

sociocultural

10

biopsychosocial framework: differences in how the same events affect people of different ages "Timing is everything"

life-cycle

11

List Characteristics of human development (3)

- Nature and nurture
- continuity and discontinuity
- universal and context-specific

12

What is nature vs nurture?

nature - influences of genetics or hereditary
nurture - influences of experiences and environment

13

What is continuity vs. discontinuity

smooth progression vs. series of abrupt shifts

14

What is universal and context-specific?

universal - all follow same path of development
context-specific - interactions with environment shape development

15

development is largely determined by how well people resolve conflicts at different ages

psychodynamic theory

16

A personality developed by interaction of an internal maturational plan and external societal demands

Life cycle = 8 stages. Order is biologically fixed

Erik Erikson's Psychosocial Theory

17

development determined by learning from experiences or from observation

learning theory

18

consequences of behavior determine if behavior is repeated in the future

B.F. Skinner - Behaviorism: operant conditioning

19

people learn appropriate behaviors by imitation; self-efficacy determines what behaviors are imitated

Bandura - Social learning theory

20

focused on how people think and how thinking changes over time

Cognitive-developmental theory

21

Cognitive-developmental theory influences (3):

- Piaget's theory
- Information-processing theory
- Vygotsky's Theory

22

children develop cognitively through environmental interactions which leads to more sophisticated understanding and reasoning; adaptation is key.

Piaget's Theory

23

The 4 stages of Piaget's Theory:

1. Sensorimotor
2. Preoperational thought
3. Concrete operational thought
4. Formal operational thought

24

developmental changes reflective of mental hardware (cognitive structures that allow storage of information) and mental software (cognitive processes that allow completion of tasks)

Information-processing theory

25

emphasized sociocultural influences on thinking; children develop by learning values, customs, and cultural beliefs from adults

Vygotsky's Theory

26

focused on the complex, multi-level environmental influences on development

ecological and systems theory

27

?
development within a series of interactive systems:
1. Microsystem - ?
2. Mesosystem - ?
3. Exosystem - ?
4. Macrosystem - ?

Bronfenbrenner's theory

1. Microsystem - immediate environment
2. Mesosystem - connections between microsystems
3. Exosystem - social settings that do not include person
4. Macrosystem - cultures and subcultures

28

abilities reflect systems in which a person lives

competence-environmental press theory

29

Lifelong development theory's 3 influences:

- life-span perspective
- selective optimization with compensation model
- life-course perspective

30

human development is multi-determined and cannot be understood within the scope of a single framework

life-span perspective