Introduction to Haemolytic Anaemia Flashcards Preview

Basic Haemotology (1204) > Introduction to Haemolytic Anaemia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Introduction to Haemolytic Anaemia Deck (38):
1

What is Haemolytic Anaemia

Anaemia due to an increase in red cell destruction with no impairment of BM function

2

True or false, HA is associated with the inability of the marrow to compensate for the increased red cell breakdown i.e. There is marrow failure.

False

3

By how much can normal marrow increase in production rate

6-8 N

4

What are the two sites of Haemolysis

Intravascular
Extravascular

5

True or false, Most HA are extravascular, i.e in the spleen

True

6

What is an exception of HA being acquired intrinsic

Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria

7

True or false, most intrinsic HA are congenital and most extrinsic ones are acquired

True

8

What classification of HA is most useful clinically

Based on inheritance

9

What are the two types of Membranopathies

Hereditary Spherocytosis
Hereditary Elliptocytosis

10

What are the different types of Enzymopathies

Glycose 6- Phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency
Pyruvate kinase deficiency

11

What are the different classifications of inherited/congenital HA

Membranopathies
Enzymopathies
Haemoglobinopathies

12

What are he different types of Haemoglobinopathies

Sickle cell disease
Thalassemia

13

What are the different types of Acquired HA

Immune
Non-Immune

14

What are the different immune acquired HA

Autoimmune HA- idiopathic, secondary, drug induced
Incompatible blood transfusion
Haemolytic disease of the new born

15

What are the different Non immune Acquired HA

MAHA (Microangiopathic haemolytic Anaemia)
Infections (malaria)
Chemicals/ drugs/ venom
Physical agents (thermal injury)
PNH

16

What are the clinical features of congenital HA

Anaemia
Jaundice
Splenomegaly
Gall stones

17

What are the different crisis in congenital HA

Aplastic , Haemolytic

18

What disease is associated with Aplastic crisis

Parovirus B19 infection

19

What is the MOA of parovirus B19 infection

Faeco- oral, oral-oral, respiratory

20

Parovirus B19 infection decreases which two blood cells components

Haemoglobin, Reticulocyte

21

How long does Parovirus B19 infection last

6-8 days

22

What occurs in haemolytic crisis

Megaloblastic crisis
Splenomegaly
Cholelithiasis
Leg ulcers
Skeletal abnormalities

23

What deficiency causes megaloblastic crisis

Folate

24

In cholelithiasis, is can be due to supersaturation of the bile with

Calcium bilirubinate

25

What is stored in cholelithiasis

Black pigment

26

What is expanded in skeletal abnormalities of congenital HA haemolytic crisis

Erythroid bone marrow

27

What are some clinical features of acquired HA

Acute febrile illness
Pallor and other features of Anaemia
Jaundice

28

What laboratory feature of Haem catabolism is identified

Unconjugated hyperbilirubinaemia
Increased urobilinogen

29

What substance is increased as a laboratory feature of haemolytic Anaemia

Serum lactate dehydrogenase

30

What substance is absent in the laboratory feature of haemolytic Anaemia

Haptoglobin

31

What are signs of IV haemolysis in laboratory features of haemolytic Anaemia

Haemoglobinaemia
Haemoglobinuria
Haemosiderinuria
Methaemalbuminaemia
Reduced serum haemopexin

32

What are the features of accelerated erythropoiesis

Reticulocytosis
Macrocytosis
NRBC in blood (nucleated red blood cells)
Leucocytosis and thrombocytosis
BM erythroid Hyperplasia

33

What are the different tests to find the cause of HA

RBC morphology
Antiglobulin test (Coombs test)
Osmotic fragility

34

What is associated with the prescence of:
Spherocytes
Elliptocytes
Echinocytes
Sickle cells
Target cells
Schistocytes
Autoagglutination
Heinz bodies

HS, AIHA
HE
PK def
SCD
Thal, HBC Disease
MAHA
Cold AIHA
G6PD deficiency

35

What are the symptoms of the differential diagnosis Anaemia and reticulocytosis

Bleeding
Recovery from deficiency of iron/folate/B12
Recovery after marrow failure

36

What are the symptoms of the differential diagnosis anaemia and acholuric jaundice

Ineffective erythropoiesis
Blood loss into body cavities/tissue

37

What is treatments are used as a supportive measure

transfuse where appropriate
splenectomy (sometimes)
steroids (sometimes)
folate supplementation

38

What are the three differential diagnosis of HA

Anaemia + reticulocytosis
Anaemia + Acohuric Jaundice
Marrow Invasion