Pathology of the Spleen Flashcards Preview

Basic Haemotology (1204) > Pathology of the Spleen > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pathology of the Spleen Deck (39):
1

What organ contains the largest single collection of lymphocytes and reticuloendothelial (RE) cells

Spleen

2

What is the average weight of the spleen

100-150g

3

Where is the Spleen located

Under the diaphragm, In the Upper left quandrant

4

What is the function of the spleen

Filtration of blood
Foreign matter pitting (cause swelling)
Culling damage cells (Reducing)
Humoral and Cellular Immune Function

5

Where are Lymphoid cells located

White pulp

6

What is the term used to describe the enlargement of the spleen

Splenomegaly

7

What are the functional disorders of the immune system

Alterations of Immune System
Alterations of Haematopoiesis

8

What 4 cells causes an increase in filtration

Abnormal RBC’s
Abnormal RBC inclusions (eg malaria)
Abnormal particulate matter (bacteria, cell debris)
Abnormal macromolecules

9

What are the causes of Splenomegaly

CHINAS
Congestion – portal hypertension
Haematological – haemolytic anaemia, sickle cell disease
Infection – malaria, TB, EBV, CMV, HIV
Neoplasm – CML, myelofibrosis, lymphoma
Autoimmune – RA, sarcoidosis, amyloidosis
Storage disorders

10

In terms of congestive states, What is the cause of Congestive Splenomegaly

Portal Hypertension:
Cirrhosis of the liver
Right heart failure
Portal / splenic vein thrombosis

11

What is the morphology of congestive Splenomegaly

Marked enlargement
Firm (cricket ball)

12

What is the histology of congestive splenomegaly

Fibrosis
± Infarcts
± Fibrosiderotic nodules (Gamna-Gandy bodies)
± Extramedullary haematopoiesis

13

What is the cause of Haematogenous Disorders in the spleen

Haematogenous Disorders
Sickle Cell Disease

14

What are the early signs of Haematogenous Disorders in sickle cell anaemia

Congestion of splenic cords
Repeated haemorrhagic infarction
Depressed scars
Gamna-Gandy bodies

15

What are the signs of Haematogenous Disorders in sickle cell anaemia

Autosplenectomy (infarction)
Persists in HbSC disease

16

What are the childhood signs of Haematogenous Disorders in sickle cell anaemia

- Sequestration

17

What are the infectious causes of Splenomegaly

TB
Malaria
Infectious Mononucleosis
Epstein Barr Virus (EBV)
Typhoid, CMV, HIV

18

What are the non-specific cause of Splenomegaly

Septicaemia

19

What is the morphology of Infectious Splenomegaly

Moderate enlargement
Congested
Soft, semi-liquid or diffluent (mushy)

20

What is the Histology of infectious splenomegaly

± Organisms
RE hyperplasia
Erythrophagocytosis (typhoid)
Mononucleosis (atypical) cells
Necrosis, polymorphs, eosinophils

21

What are the causes of Primary Neoplasms in the spleen

Lymphomas/Leukaemias
Soft tissue tumours
± Haemangiomas
± Lymphangiomas

22

What are the causes of Secondary Neoplasms in the spleen

GIT

23

What are some autoimmune diseases that causes splenomegaly

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
Sarcoidosis
Amyloidosis

24

What is the morphology of autoimmune splenomegaly

moderate - marked enlargement
prominent white pulp

25

What is the histology of autoimmune splenomegaly

Hyperplasia of white pulp
Sarcoidosis:
Granulomas

26

What causes Lysosomal Storage Diseases in the spleen

(n-born errors of metabolism
~50 rare inherited metabolic disorders
Lysosomal enzyme defects
Macromolecules accumulate within cells

27

What diseases causes storage diseases splenomegaly

(In-born errors of metabolism)
Gaucher (sphingolipids)
Mucopolysaccharidoses
Niemann-Pick (Lipids)
RE cell hyperplasia

28

What causes Massive splenomegaly

Chronic Myeloid leukaemia
Myelofibrosis
Malaria

29

What are 2 miscellaneous causes of Splenomegaly

Infarction
Cysts

30

True or False, In Splenic infarcts there is a mild enlargement in the acute stage

True

31

What are the causes of
Splenic Infarcts

Embolic occlusion of splenic artery

32

What is the gross anatomy of splenic infarcts

Pale, wedge-shaped
+ suppurative necrosis with septic emboli

33

What is the healed anatomy of splenic infarcts

Fibrous scars

34

What is the cause of parasitic splenic cysts

Echinococcus (dog tape worm- Hydatid cysts)

35

True or False, Splenic Cysts are rare

True

36

What is the cause of nonparasitic splenic cysts

True cysts - epithelial lining
-Epidermoid
-Dermoid
Pseudo-cysts - fibrous tissue lining
-Due to trauma
-Haemorrhage and organization

37

What is the cause of splenic rupture

Usually Traumatic

38

What is the cause of spontaneous splenic rupture

typhoid, malaria, infectious mono

39

What is the cause of Rx splenectomy

More severe infections with capsulated organisms