Overview Of Anaemia Flashcards Preview

Basic Haemotology (1204) > Overview Of Anaemia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Overview Of Anaemia Deck (76):
1

What are the cellular elements of blood

RBCs, WBCs, Platelets

2

Define
A. Plasma
B. Serum

Obtained from anti-coagulated blood
Liquid part of blood that is allowed to clot

3

Blood is collected in tubes that contain

Anticoagulants

4

What anticoagulant has :
Purple top
Blue top
Green top

EDTA
Trisodium Citrate
Heparin

5

What anticoagulant is associate with finding:
CBC
Test for Coagulation
Molecular studies, cytogenetics, lymphocyte count

EDTA
Trisodium Citrate
Heparin

6

True or False, WBC counts may be inaccurate issuing automated methods

True

7

What are the different functions of the blood

Deliver nutrients, oxygen and hormones to tissues (red cells)
Collect waste from cellular metabolism (WBC's)
Deliver cells to tissues for protection against the external environment (WBC's)
To prevent leakage by closing holes in blood vessels (platelets and clotting factors)

8

What are the fluid elements of blood

Plasma
Serum
Water
Electrolytes
Proteins (clotting factors, antibodies, transport proteins)

9

What anticoagulant is used to find CBC

EDTA- Purple top

10

What anticoagulant is used to test for coagulation

Trisodium Citrate- Blue top

11

What anticoagulant is used in molecular studies, Cytogenetics, lymphocyte count

Heparin- green top

12

Why are WBC inaccurate using automated methods

Aggregated cells
Nucleated red cells
Incomplete lysis of cells
WBC Agglutination

13

What method and prcedure is used in finding the morphology of blood cells

Fingerstick method
Smeared on glass side
Stained using Wright or May- Grunwald- Giemsa Stain
Smear is then examined at 10x to 20x

14

Smear is first _____ before going on to higher power for WBC Differentials

Scanned

15

What should RBCs be accessed for

size, shape, haemoglobin distribution
Presence of Inclusion

16

What term is used to describe a variation in size

Anisocytosis

17

What term is used to describe a variation on shape

Poikilocytosis

18

What term is used to describe a poor haemoglobinisation

Hypochromia (Low MCH)

19

What term is used to describe a lack of central area of pallor

Sphrenocytes

20

What term is used to describe cells that are larger than normal

Macrocytes (High MCV)

21

What term is used to describe cells that are smaller than normal

Microcytes (Low MCV)

22

What are the RDW and MCV characteristics of Anaemia of chronic disease
Heterozygous thalassemia

Normal RDW and Low MCV

23

What are the RDW and MCV characteristics of Iron Deficiency and S-thalassemia

Elevated RDW and Low MCV

24

What are the RDW and MCV characteristics of Aplastic Anaemia, Liver Disease, Chemotherapy

Normal RDW and High MCV

25

What are the RDW and MCV characteristics of Folate/B12 deficiency , Myelodysplastic Syndrome

Elevated RDW and High MCV

26

What are the RDW and MCV characteristics of Anaemia of chronic disease and Acute blood loss or haemolysis

Normal RDW
Normal MCV

27

What are the RDW and MCV characteristics of Early iron, B12, folate deficiency, Chronic liver disease, Sickle cell disease

Elevated RDW and Normal MCV

28

How many white blood cells should be assessed for manual differential Count

100

29

What cells are included in an immature WBC

Bands, Metamyelocytes, Myelocytes, Promyelocytes, blases

30

What is prepared from bone marrow aspirate

Cytology

31

What is accessed from the bone marrow biopsy

Cellularity and infiltration

32

What are the sites for bone marrow evaluation in children

Anterio-medial tibia

33

What are the sites for bone marrow evaluation in adults

Sternum
Anterior and Posterior Iliac Crest

34

What is used to stain the bone marrow for a biopsy

Haematoxylin and eosin

35

What is ESR

Erythrocytes Sedimentation Rate

36

What does the ESR reflect

The tendency of blood to settle more rapidly in some disease states

37

An increase in the rate of ESR represents an increase in what proteins

Fibrinogen, Immunoglobin and other acute phase proteins

38

Red cell _______ and ________ May also affect rate of fall of ESR

Shape and numbers

39

True or false, ESR increases in rate in normal humans

True

40

Name a disease that ESR is useful I. Follow the course

R.A Hodgkins

41

What method is ESR measured ?

Westergren or Wintrobe Method

42

What are the units of measuring for ESR

Mm/hr

43

What is used in the clinical practice to diagnose if a person has Anaemia

Reduction in haemoglobin
Reduction in red cell count

44

What is the normal red cell count in:
Men
Women
Infants (full term, cord blood)
Children ( 1 year)
Children (10-12)

5.5 +/- 1 x 10^12 l
4.8 +/- 1 x 10^12 l
5.0 +/- 1 x 10^12 l
4.4 +/- 0.8 x 10^12 l
4.7 +/- 0.7 x 10^12 l

45

What is the normal Haemoglobin level in :
Men
Women
Infants (full term, cord blood)
Children ( 1 year)
Children (10-12)

15.5 +/- 2.5 g/dl
14 +/- 2.5 g/dl
16.5 +/- 3 g/dl
12 +/- 1 g/dl
13 +/- 1.5 g/dl

46

What is the normal Packed cell Volume (PCV : haematocrit) in :
Men
Women
Infants (full term, cord blood)
Children ( 3 months)
Children (10-12)

0.47 +/- 0.07 (l/l)
0.42 +/- 0.05 (l/l)
0.54 +/- 0.10 (l/l)
0.38 +/- 0.06 (l/l)
0.41 +/- 0.04 (l/l)

47

What are the two main classifications of Anaemia

Pathogenic and aetiological classifications - based on the cause of Anaemia
Morphological classification- based on the characteristics of the red cell

48

Clinical investigation of a patient with Anaemia involves which two distinct steps

Determination of the morphological type of Anaemia
Determination of the cause of the Anaemia

49

What are the two aetiological classifications of Anaemia

Hypo- regenerative
Hyper-regenerative

50

What is Hypo- regenerative Anaemia was

Failure of the bone marrow production of red cells

51

What is hyper regenerative Anaemia

Increase in red cell destruction or consumption with a concomitant increase in red cell production

52

Each day, approximately _______ of the red cell pool needs to be replaced by young erythrocytes released from the bone marrow

0.8%

53

Differentiate between the mature red cells and and reticulocytes

Retuculocytes are larger and contain polyribosomal RNA material

54

What type of stains of the peripheral blood are used to detect the reticulate cells

Supravital stains

55

Reticulocyte provides an easy means in differentiating if the _______ or _______ as the source of Anaemia

Marrow or periphery

56

Anaemia + Low Reticulocyte count indicates what type of Anaemia

Hypo regenerative Anaemia

57

Anaemia + High Reticulocyte count indicates what type of Anaemia

Hyper regenerative Anaemia

58

What is the normal Reticulocyte % in :
Adults and children
Infants (full term,cord blood)

0-2-2%
2-6%

59

What is the major factor controlling the rate of red cell production

Oxygen content of the arterial blood

60

True or false , reticulocytes released under heavy erythropoietin stimulation remain in the peripheral blood longer than the usual one day maturation time of ‘no stress reticulocytes’

True

61

The Reticulocyte index checks for

Prolonged maturation time of the reticulocytes
The anaemia

62

What is the equation for finding the Reticulocyte index

Reticulocyte count % / maturation time (days)
X
Patient PCV / Normal PCV

63

What does it mean If the RI is
<2
>3

Hypo regenerative Anaemia
Hyper regenerative Anaemia

64

True or false, if the normal pallor is greater than a third of the diameter of the cell, it is macrocytic

False, it is hypochromic

65

The size and staining characteristics of the cell maybe measured by

Mean corpuscular haemoglobin
Mean corpuscular volume
Mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration

66

What is the MCV (fl) equation

PCV x 1000/ RCC (10^12/l)
SI unit fl

67

What is the MCH (pg) equation

Haemoglobin (g/dL) x 10 / RCC (10^12/l)
SI unit (pg)

68

What is the MCHC equation

Haemoglobin (g/dL) / PCV (l/l)
SI unit (g/dL)

69

What is the normal MCV in
Adults
Infants (full term, cord blood)
Children (1 year)
Children (10-12 years)

85 +/- 8fl
106 fl
78 ± 8 fl
84 ± 7 fl

70

What is the normal MCH in adults

29.5 ± 2.5 pg

71

What is the normal Mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) in adults and children

33 ± 2 g/dl

72

True or false, Children and young adults can tolerate a much greater degree of chronic anaemia than older patients due to cardiovascular compromise with advancing age.

true

73

True or false, Symptoms occur at a higher haemoglobin level with rapidly developing anaemia e.g.
acute haemorrhage, than in a slowly developing chronic anaemia.

True

74

Describe the pallor in patients with
hemolytic anaemia
pernicious anaemia.
acute blood loss

Pallor + icterus
Lemon yellow pallor
Waxy dead whiteness + cold and moist palms

75

What is the partial pressure of oxygen when its saturation is 50%

27 mmHg

76

True or false, an increase in 2,3 DPG decreases the affinity of haemogloblin for oxgen and shifts curve to the right

true