Introduction to upper limb Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Introduction to upper limb Deck (46):
1

functions of the skeletal system

1. provides our basic shape
2. provides support for the body
3. allows the muscular system to produce movement (locomotion)
4. protection of vital organs

2

functional parts of skeletal system

axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton

3

parts of axial skeleton

head, neck and trunk

4

parts of the appendicular skeleton

limbs, and pectoral and pelvic girdle

5

characteristics of upper limb

mobility and ability to grasp, strike and conduct fine motor skills (manipulation)
movements of many joints for fine and coarse movements

6

segments of upper limb

shoulder, arm, forearm and hand

7

shoulder

proximal segment
overlaps trunk and neck
pectoral girdle is an incomplete ring

8

what bones form the shoulder

the scapulae, clavicle and sternum

9

arm

free upper segment
longest segment

10

bones that form the arm

humerus

11

forearm

second longest segment

12

bones that form the forearm

radius (thumb side)
ulna (pinkie side)

13

parts of hand

wrist, palm, dorsum and fingers

14

bones that form the hand

many:
8 carpal bones
5 metacarpals
14 phalanges

15

upper limb features

weight bearing not an issue
emphasis on increased mobility
- pectoral girdle less fixed to axial skeleton than the pelvic girdle
- equivalent joint much less stable

16

flexion and extension points of upper limb

shoulder joint

17

flexion and extension point of lower limb

hip joint

18

flexion and extension of forearm

at elbow joint

19

flexion and extension of leg

knee joint

20

flexion and extension of hand

wrist joint

21

flexion and extension of digits (fingers)

at metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints

22

opposition and reposition of the thumb and pinkie

thumb: at carpometacarpal joint
pinkie: metacarpophalangeal joint

23

pronation and supination or forearm

radioulnar joint

24

abduction and adduction of 1st, 2nd, 4th, and 5th digits

at metacarpophalangeal joints

25

lateral and medial abduction and adduction of 3rd digit

at metacarpophalangeal joint

26

abduction and adduction of thumb

frontal plane
at metacarpophalangeal joint

27

flexion and extension of thumb

sagittal plane
metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints

28

upper limb specialised modifications

1. circumduction of shoulder
2. pronation/supination of forearm
3. opposition of thumb
4. precise control of fine digital movements

permits gripping/grasping, lifting/carrying and swinging/punching

29

what is the clavicle

movable, crane-like strut, ensuring the limbs are away from the trunk
transmits shock from upper limb to axial skeleton

30

joints in the clavicle

sternoclavicular joint (SC joint)
acromioclavicular joint (AC joint)

31

first long bone to ossify

clavicle

32

by when is the clavicle completely fused

25-31 years old

33

scapula

shoulder blade
glenoid cavity laterally
head of humerus 4x bigger than bony socket
fibrous capsule loose
more prone to dislocation

34

shoulder joint / gelnohumeral joint

shallow glenoid cavity
made deeper by glenoid labrum
loose joint capsule
bursae
easily dislocated

35

movements of glenohumeral joint

adduction/abduction
flexion/extension
medial and lateral rotation
circumduction

36

arm

extends from glenohumeral joint and elbow joint
bone: humerus
divided into anterior and posterior compartments

37

anterior compartment of arm

also the flexor compartment
formed by biceps brachii, brachial, coracobrachialis
flexors mainly

38

posterior compartment of arm

also the extensor compartment
formed by triceps brachii and anconeus
extension movement

39

elbow joint

synovial hinge joint
dense capsule and ligaments for stability

40

elbow joint movements

0º extension - 150º flexion
flexion: main muscle biceps brachii (and brachialis and brachioradialis)
extension: main muscle triceps brachii (forced extension damages olecranon)

41

forearm

between elbow and wrist

42

forearm movements

supination: supinator muscle
pronation: pronator teres and pronator quadratus

43

extrinsic muscles of hand

flexors and extensors

44

intrinsic muscles of hand

thenar, hypothenar, interosseous and lumbricals

45

hand skin

thicker, hairless, and skin inhibits melanin production

46

power and precision grip throughout years

1-2 yrs: first grip
2-3 yrs: four-finger grip
4 yrs: pincer grip