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Human Form and Function > Museum Assignment > Flashcards

Flashcards in Museum Assignment Deck (63):
1

What are true ribs?

Directly attached to sternum, come around and attach to centre of the sternum
Attached to sternum medially

2

What are false ribs?

Ribs attached to costal cartilages, indirectly/secondary attached to sternum
Attached to the lowest true rib medially

3

What are floating ribs?

No connection to the sternum, only connected to the back of the vertebrae
Not attached to anything medially

4

Which ribs are true?

1-7

5

Which ribs are false?

8-10

6

Which ribs are floating?

11-12

7

How many vertebrae make up the cervical spine?

7

8

How many vertebrae make up the thoracic spine?

12

9

How many vertebrae make up the lumbar spine?

5

10

What structures are found in the costal groove?

Intercostal vein, artery and nerve

11

What type of muscle makes up the outer muscular part of the diaphragm?

Skeletal muscle

12

How does the diaphragm move during inspiration?

During inspiration, the diaphragm contracts, so that its centre moves caudally (downward) and its edges move rostrally (upward). This compresses the abdominal cavity, raises the ribs upward and outward and thus expands the thoracic cavity. This expansion draws air into the lungs. When the diaphragm relaxes, elastic recoil of the thoracic wall causes the thoracic cavity to contract, forcing air out of the lungs.

13

What structures are situated immediately below the diaphragm on the right?

The liver

14

What structures are situated immediately below the diaphragm on the left?

The stomach and spleen

15

What's underneath the spleen?

Kidneys

16

Which dome of the diaphragm is higher?

Right dome is higher due to the large liver beneath it

17

What does the Coeliac trunk do?

Supplies the liver

18

What does the Superior mesenteric artery and vein supply?

The small intestine

19

What does the inferior mesenteric artery supply?

The large intestine

20

What's the anatomical term for the tongue?

Genioglossus

21

Where are the superior, medial, and inferior conchae and meatuses?

The nasal cavity

22

What is the function of the epiglottis?

Closes laryngeal inlet during swallowing, preventing the aspiration of food

23

What's the Adam's apple made of?

Thyroid cartilage

24

How is saliva transported into the oral cavity from the submandibular gland?

Via the submandibular duct which exits the gland and passes to mucous membrane on floor of oral cavity and empties into both sides of tongue frenulum

25

Where is the parotid gland situated?

Anteriorly to the ear and its duct runs over the surface of the masseter mucles and pierces the buccinator muscle to enter the oral cavity at the upper second molar

26

Where is the masseter muscle?

Which closes the jaw

27

Where is the buccinator?

Cheek muscle

28

What structures are present on the lateral surface of the left lung?

The oblique fissure, two lobes and impressions made by the ribs during embalming

29

What structures are present on the medial surface of the left lung?

Branching of blood vessels and the bronchi at the dissected hilum

30

What structures are present on the lateral surface of the right lung?

Horizontal and oblique fissures and three lobes and the surface impressions on the soft tissue made by the ribs during embalming

31

What has formed the indentations on the mediastinal surfaces on the left lung?

Descending aorta, aortic arch and the heart

32

What has formed the indentations on the mediastinal surfaces on the right lung?

Venae cavae (superior and inferior) and heart

33

What two chambers does the tricuspid valve separate?

Right atrium and right ventricle

34

How many branches come off the aorta?

3 main branches- 1 then splits into 2 (right subclavian and right carotid)

35

Which structures are located in the mediastinum (area between the two pleural cavities)?

Heart, blood vessels (e.g. aorta, vena cava), oesophagus, trachea

36

Which chamber of the heart is associated with the superior and inferior venae cavae?

Right atrium

37

Which chamber of the heart is associated with the pulmonary veins?

Left atrium

38

Which chamber of the heart is associated with the pulmonary trunk (artery)?

Right ventricle

39

Which chamber of the heart is associated with the aorta?

Left ventricle

40

What is the fossa ovalis?

Remnant of the foramen ovale fetal shunt from RA – LA which bypasses the lungs. A second other shunt, the dutus arteriosum, shunts any blood that has made its way into the RV (and thus pulmonary trunk) into aorta

41

Where is the fossa ovalis?

Between the atria

42

Where are bicuspid valve, chordae tendinae and papillary muscles?

Left ventricle

43

What do the aortic (semilunar) valves?

Guard the entrance to the aorta

44

Where is the pancreas?

At the side of the duodenum

45

What process is the kidneys involved with?

Excretory system

46

What do kidneys regulate?

Regulate fluid and electrolyte balance by producing urine

47

What are nephrons?

Each organ has 1-4 million function units, the individual parts are located in various macroscopic regions of the kidney evident of the plastinated kidney

48

What's in the outer cortex of the kidney?

Glomerular (Bowman's) capsules (which filter the blood) and proximal and distal convoluted tubules are found

49

Where is the loop of Henle in the kidney?

Plunges into the inner medula which consists of 6-18 renal pyramids which, together with columns of cortical tissue form the renal lobes

50

Where is urine produced?

Within renal lobes

51

Where does formed urine travel to ?

The minor calyces at the renal papillae

52

What is the function of the minor calyces?

To transfer the urine to the major calyces, from where it drains to the renal pelvis

53

Where does urine exit the kidney

The concave border at the hilus as the ureter

54

What is a hilum?

The general name given for the root of a structure, where everything enters/leaves

55

What is the largest gland in the body?

Liver

56

What is the liver covered in?

Peritoneum

57

Where is the quadrate lobe in the liver?

Next to the gallbladder

58

Where is the caudate lobe in the liver?

Next to the inferior vena cava

59

What does the falciform ligament of the liver attach to?

The falciform ligament of the liver extends from the upper convex surface of the liver to the diaphragm and the anterior abdominal wall.

60

What is the mesoappendix?

Connecting the appendix and ileum

61

What are the epiploic appendages in the large intestines?

Covering the intestine

62

What are the haustra in the large intestines?

Segments of large intestine

63

What are the taeniae coli in the large intestines?

Small fold in colon