Flashcards in Museum Assignment Deck (63):
What are true ribs?
Directly attached to sternum, come around and attach to centre of the sternum
Attached to sternum medially
What are false ribs?
Ribs attached to costal cartilages, indirectly/secondary attached to sternum
Attached to the lowest true rib medially
What are floating ribs?
No connection to the sternum, only connected to the back of the vertebrae
Not attached to anything medially
Which ribs are true?
Which ribs are false?
Which ribs are floating?
How many vertebrae make up the cervical spine?
How many vertebrae make up the thoracic spine?
How many vertebrae make up the lumbar spine?
What structures are found in the costal groove?
Intercostal vein, artery and nerve
What type of muscle makes up the outer muscular part of the diaphragm?
How does the diaphragm move during inspiration?
During inspiration, the diaphragm contracts, so that its centre moves caudally (downward) and its edges move rostrally (upward). This compresses the abdominal cavity, raises the ribs upward and outward and thus expands the thoracic cavity. This expansion draws air into the lungs. When the diaphragm relaxes, elastic recoil of the thoracic wall causes the thoracic cavity to contract, forcing air out of the lungs.
What structures are situated immediately below the diaphragm on the right?
What structures are situated immediately below the diaphragm on the left?
The stomach and spleen
What's underneath the spleen?
Which dome of the diaphragm is higher?
Right dome is higher due to the large liver beneath it
What does the Coeliac trunk do?
Supplies the liver
What does the Superior mesenteric artery and vein supply?
The small intestine
What does the inferior mesenteric artery supply?
The large intestine
What's the anatomical term for the tongue?
Where are the superior, medial, and inferior conchae and meatuses?
The nasal cavity
What is the function of the epiglottis?
Closes laryngeal inlet during swallowing, preventing the aspiration of food
What's the Adam's apple made of?
How is saliva transported into the oral cavity from the submandibular gland?
Via the submandibular duct which exits the gland and passes to mucous membrane on floor of oral cavity and empties into both sides of tongue frenulum
Where is the parotid gland situated?
Anteriorly to the ear and its duct runs over the surface of the masseter mucles and pierces the buccinator muscle to enter the oral cavity at the upper second molar
Where is the masseter muscle?
Which closes the jaw
Where is the buccinator?
What structures are present on the lateral surface of the left lung?
The oblique fissure, two lobes and impressions made by the ribs during embalming
What structures are present on the medial surface of the left lung?
Branching of blood vessels and the bronchi at the dissected hilum
What structures are present on the lateral surface of the right lung?
Horizontal and oblique fissures and three lobes and the surface impressions on the soft tissue made by the ribs during embalming
What has formed the indentations on the mediastinal surfaces on the left lung?
Descending aorta, aortic arch and the heart
What has formed the indentations on the mediastinal surfaces on the right lung?
Venae cavae (superior and inferior) and heart
What two chambers does the tricuspid valve separate?
Right atrium and right ventricle
How many branches come off the aorta?
3 main branches- 1 then splits into 2 (right subclavian and right carotid)
Which structures are located in the mediastinum (area between the two pleural cavities)?
Heart, blood vessels (e.g. aorta, vena cava), oesophagus, trachea
Which chamber of the heart is associated with the superior and inferior venae cavae?
Which chamber of the heart is associated with the pulmonary veins?
Which chamber of the heart is associated with the pulmonary trunk (artery)?
Which chamber of the heart is associated with the aorta?
What is the fossa ovalis?
Remnant of the foramen ovale fetal shunt from RA – LA which bypasses the lungs. A second other shunt, the dutus arteriosum, shunts any blood that has made its way into the RV (and thus pulmonary trunk) into aorta
Where is the fossa ovalis?
Between the atria
Where are bicuspid valve, chordae tendinae and papillary muscles?
What do the aortic (semilunar) valves?
Guard the entrance to the aorta
Where is the pancreas?
At the side of the duodenum
What process is the kidneys involved with?
What do kidneys regulate?
Regulate fluid and electrolyte balance by producing urine
What are nephrons?
Each organ has 1-4 million function units, the individual parts are located in various macroscopic regions of the kidney evident of the plastinated kidney
What's in the outer cortex of the kidney?
Glomerular (Bowman's) capsules (which filter the blood) and proximal and distal convoluted tubules are found
Where is the loop of Henle in the kidney?
Plunges into the inner medula which consists of 6-18 renal pyramids which, together with columns of cortical tissue form the renal lobes
Where is urine produced?
Within renal lobes
Where does formed urine travel to ?
The minor calyces at the renal papillae
What is the function of the minor calyces?
To transfer the urine to the major calyces, from where it drains to the renal pelvis
Where does urine exit the kidney
The concave border at the hilus as the ureter
What is a hilum?
The general name given for the root of a structure, where everything enters/leaves
What is the largest gland in the body?
What is the liver covered in?
Where is the quadrate lobe in the liver?
Next to the gallbladder
Where is the caudate lobe in the liver?
Next to the inferior vena cava
What does the falciform ligament of the liver attach to?
The falciform ligament of the liver extends from the upper convex surface of the liver to the diaphragm and the anterior abdominal wall.
What is the mesoappendix?
Connecting the appendix and ileum
What are the epiploic appendages in the large intestines?
Covering the intestine
What are the haustra in the large intestines?
Segments of large intestine