The Female Reproductive Tract Flashcards Preview

Human Form and Function > The Female Reproductive Tract > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Female Reproductive Tract Deck (66):
1

What are the main components of the female reproductive tract?

• Ovaries
• Fallopian tube
• Uterus
• Vagina
• External genitalia (accessory glands)

2

What are ovaries?

Endocrine glands
Flattened ovid, roughly 3cm long

3

What are the ovaries suspended in the upper pelvis by?

Broad ligament- peritoneum
Suspensor ligaments- to pelvic wall
Ovarian ligaments- lower to pole of ovary to the uterus

4

What is the ovary histology?

• Simple cuboidal germinal epithelium
• Tunica albuginea (connective tissue capsule- same name as capsule around testis)
• Stromal connective tissue
• Follicles in cortex= oocytes & supporting cells
• Roughly 400 (oocytes) fully released in lifetime

5

What are within the stromal connective tissue?

Outer cortex- developing follicles sit in here
Inner medulla

6

Follicles= oocytes and supporting cells, what do they do?

Produce hormones
Ovum expelled each month

7

Why are there roughly 400 oocytes released in lifetime?

Birth roughly 2 million follicles- mitosis during foetal life, then paused in meiosis. When puberty a new surge of hormones begins oogenesis
Puberty roughly 400,000 follicles

8

What is atresia?

Degeneration of follicles that aren't going to be released

9

What is oogenesis?

Formation of female gametes

10

Where does oogenesis this begin?

Fetus

11

What is the primary oocyte surrounded by?

Granulosa cells

12

What happens during puberty?

Enlarged= primary follicle (primary oocyte surrounded by supporting granulosa cells)

13

What is the mature/tertiary follicle (Graafian follicle)?

Enlarged follicle with fluid filled atrium (cavity)

14

What is a secondary oocyte?

Oocyte that completes 1st meiotic division

15

What happens during ovulation?

One will be released the rest will go through Atresia. More follicles recruited to go through oogenesis than will complete cycle so will degenerate.

16

What is ovulation?:

Release of a secondary oocyte from ovary into peritoneal cavity

17

What is the difference between oorgenesis and ovulation?

Oogenesis- development of oocyte
Ovulation- release of oocyte

18

How many eggs are ovulated?

Lots of follicles mature each cycle
Only one ovulated

19

What is fertilisation?

Sperm binds to & penetrates the oocyte plasma membrane

20

What happens to the follicles that aren't ovulated?

Others degenerate- atresia

21

What is the corpus luteum (CL)?

Enlarge and secrete hormones- progesterone and estrogen for 10 days- give hormone long enough to travel through fallopian tube
Degenerates when no pregnancy- corpus albicans

22

What happens to CL during pregnancy?

CL enlarges and remains throught pregnancy
Continues to produce progesterone and estrogen, stop uterine wall from shedding (preventing miscarriage)

23

How does high insulin and T alters follicle development in Polycistic (PCOS)?

High insulin & T alters follicle dev
Many follicles develop but not fully
No ovulation
Difficulty conceiving
Weight gain and hirsutism- increased testosterone
1 in 10 (or even 4)

24

What is the uterine (fallopian tubes)?

Space in between ovary and Fallopian tube, not released directly into fallopian tube
Paired, roughly 10cm long
Extends ovary- uterus
Opens into peritoneal cavity

25

How is the uterine (fallopian tube) expand?

Expands at ovary= infundibulum
Funnel shaped
Long, thin, processes (fimbriae)

26

What is the ampulla in the uterine?

Widest longest part
Site of fertilisation

27

What is the isthmus in the uterine?

Part nearest uterus
Narrow but thick walled

28

What do fallopian tubes receive?

Receives oocytes
Pathway to uterus

29

What is fallopian tubes lined by?

• Lined by mucosa- mucous membrane
o Simple columnar epithelium
o Cilia to help move egg

30

What muscularis makes up the fallopian tube?

Inner circular and outer longitudinal smooth muscle

31

How long does a fertilised egg travel through the fallopian tube?

Roughly 6-10 days

32

What happens in an ectopic pregnancy?

Egg implants outside the uterus

33

What is the shape and size of the uterus?

pear shaped, roughly 7.5cm long

34

What is the fundus in the uterus?

Posterior to fallopian tubes
Large and rounded

35

What is the body in the uterus?

Central portion

36

What is the cervix?

Inferior, narrow, opens to vagina, cervix is part of the uterus
Projects forward- 90 degree angle with vagina
Retroverted- backwards tipping

37

What is retroflexion?

Backward tipping of vagina

38

What do ligaments and pelvix cloor muscles support?

Broad, round, cardinal & utersoacral ligaments
If muscles weakened uterus extend inferiorly into vagina= prolapsed uterus

39

What 4 categories do ligaments and pelvix cloor muscles support uterine prolapse?

I- uterus in upper half of vagin
IV- uterus completely out other vagina

40

What is perimetrium?

Peritoneum serous membrane covering uterus

41

What is myometrium?

Smooth muscle layer, bulk of uterus

42

What type of muscle and tissue is in the cervical?

Less muscle, more dense connective tissue so rigid and less contractile

43

What is endometrium?

Muscous membrane- simple columnar epithelium & lamina propria

44

What makes up the cervix?

Neck of uterus- inferior
Columnar (sup.) & squamous (inf) epithelial cells
Cervica mucous glands

45

What do cervica mucosa glands do?

Mucus barrier to substance from the vagina
Near ovulation, consistency of mucus changes

46

What can identify cervical cancer?

Abnormal changes in cell shape

47

What happens during early cervical cancer?

Cells change, visible under a microscope

48

What are treatments for cervical cancer?

Radiation, chemo and surgery

49

How many women are affected with cervical cancer each year?

2800

50

What is cervical cancer usually caused by?

70% cervical cancer due to infection with human papillomavirus (HPV)
NEW VACCINTION

51

In the vagina how long is the fibromuscular tube?

roughly 10cm

52

What makes up the vagina wall?

Inner mucosa- stratified squamous epithelium
Muscularis
Adventitia
Gateway to uterus (pH acidic- protective)
Passageway for menstrual flow
Birth canal during Labor

53

What does the endometrium contain?

Contains uterine glands and blood vessels (spiral artieries)
Functionalis & deeper stratum balld
Functional zone thicker, undergoes changes during menstrual cycle

54

What is inner mucosa used for in the vagina?

Protective- luberications in intercourse
Folded in rugae
Hymen- mucous membrane covering vaginal orifice

55

What muscularis is present in the vagina?

Inner longitudinal & outer circular; allows vagina enlarge in intercourse & childbirth

56

What is the composition of the Adventitia in the vagina?

Outer loose CT, anchors vagina

57

What is the Female External genitalia called?

VULVA

58

What is the vestibule of the vagina?

Space
Urethral & vaginal openings
Mucous glands
Labia minora skin folds borders
Clitoris: erectile structure- corpora cavernosa

59

What is the labia majora of the vagina?

Rounded folds of skin & fat
Medial surfaces sebaceous & sweat glands
Unite to form mons pubis ant
Elevated over pubis symphysis

60

What is the male version of the labia majora?

Scrotum

61

What is the male version of the labia minora?

Spongy urethra

62

What is the male version of the vestibule?

Membranous urethra

63

What is the male version of the bulb of vestibule?

Bulb of penis

64

What is the male version of the clitoris?

Glans penis

65

What is the male version of the Skene's glands?

Prostate

66

What is the male version of the Bartholin's glands?

Cowper's glands