Flashcards in The Female Reproductive Tract Deck (66):
What are the main components of the female reproductive tract?
• Fallopian tube
• External genitalia (accessory glands)
What are ovaries?
Flattened ovid, roughly 3cm long
What are the ovaries suspended in the upper pelvis by?
Broad ligament- peritoneum
Suspensor ligaments- to pelvic wall
Ovarian ligaments- lower to pole of ovary to the uterus
What is the ovary histology?
• Simple cuboidal germinal epithelium
• Tunica albuginea (connective tissue capsule- same name as capsule around testis)
• Stromal connective tissue
• Follicles in cortex= oocytes & supporting cells
• Roughly 400 (oocytes) fully released in lifetime
What are within the stromal connective tissue?
Outer cortex- developing follicles sit in here
Follicles= oocytes and supporting cells, what do they do?
Ovum expelled each month
Why are there roughly 400 oocytes released in lifetime?
Birth roughly 2 million follicles- mitosis during foetal life, then paused in meiosis. When puberty a new surge of hormones begins oogenesis
Puberty roughly 400,000 follicles
What is atresia?
Degeneration of follicles that aren't going to be released
What is oogenesis?
Formation of female gametes
Where does oogenesis this begin?
What is the primary oocyte surrounded by?
What happens during puberty?
Enlarged= primary follicle (primary oocyte surrounded by supporting granulosa cells)
What is the mature/tertiary follicle (Graafian follicle)?
Enlarged follicle with fluid filled atrium (cavity)
What is a secondary oocyte?
Oocyte that completes 1st meiotic division
What happens during ovulation?
One will be released the rest will go through Atresia. More follicles recruited to go through oogenesis than will complete cycle so will degenerate.
What is ovulation?:
Release of a secondary oocyte from ovary into peritoneal cavity
What is the difference between oorgenesis and ovulation?
Oogenesis- development of oocyte
Ovulation- release of oocyte
How many eggs are ovulated?
Lots of follicles mature each cycle
Only one ovulated
What is fertilisation?
Sperm binds to & penetrates the oocyte plasma membrane
What happens to the follicles that aren't ovulated?
Others degenerate- atresia
What is the corpus luteum (CL)?
Enlarge and secrete hormones- progesterone and estrogen for 10 days- give hormone long enough to travel through fallopian tube
Degenerates when no pregnancy- corpus albicans
What happens to CL during pregnancy?
CL enlarges and remains throught pregnancy
Continues to produce progesterone and estrogen, stop uterine wall from shedding (preventing miscarriage)
How does high insulin and T alters follicle development in Polycistic (PCOS)?
High insulin & T alters follicle dev
Many follicles develop but not fully
Weight gain and hirsutism- increased testosterone
1 in 10 (or even 4)
What is the uterine (fallopian tubes)?
Space in between ovary and Fallopian tube, not released directly into fallopian tube
Paired, roughly 10cm long
Extends ovary- uterus
Opens into peritoneal cavity
How is the uterine (fallopian tube) expand?
Expands at ovary= infundibulum
Long, thin, processes (fimbriae)
What is the ampulla in the uterine?
Widest longest part
Site of fertilisation
What is the isthmus in the uterine?
Part nearest uterus
Narrow but thick walled
What do fallopian tubes receive?
Pathway to uterus
What is fallopian tubes lined by?
• Lined by mucosa- mucous membrane
o Simple columnar epithelium
o Cilia to help move egg
What muscularis makes up the fallopian tube?
Inner circular and outer longitudinal smooth muscle
How long does a fertilised egg travel through the fallopian tube?
Roughly 6-10 days
What happens in an ectopic pregnancy?
Egg implants outside the uterus
What is the shape and size of the uterus?
pear shaped, roughly 7.5cm long
What is the fundus in the uterus?
Posterior to fallopian tubes
Large and rounded
What is the body in the uterus?
What is the cervix?
Inferior, narrow, opens to vagina, cervix is part of the uterus
Projects forward- 90 degree angle with vagina
Retroverted- backwards tipping
What is retroflexion?
Backward tipping of vagina
What do ligaments and pelvix cloor muscles support?
Broad, round, cardinal & utersoacral ligaments
If muscles weakened uterus extend inferiorly into vagina= prolapsed uterus
What 4 categories do ligaments and pelvix cloor muscles support uterine prolapse?
I- uterus in upper half of vagin
IV- uterus completely out other vagina
What is perimetrium?
Peritoneum serous membrane covering uterus
What is myometrium?
Smooth muscle layer, bulk of uterus
What type of muscle and tissue is in the cervical?
Less muscle, more dense connective tissue so rigid and less contractile
What is endometrium?
Muscous membrane- simple columnar epithelium & lamina propria
What makes up the cervix?
Neck of uterus- inferior
Columnar (sup.) & squamous (inf) epithelial cells
Cervica mucous glands
What do cervica mucosa glands do?
Mucus barrier to substance from the vagina
Near ovulation, consistency of mucus changes
What can identify cervical cancer?
Abnormal changes in cell shape
What happens during early cervical cancer?
Cells change, visible under a microscope
What are treatments for cervical cancer?
Radiation, chemo and surgery
How many women are affected with cervical cancer each year?
What is cervical cancer usually caused by?
70% cervical cancer due to infection with human papillomavirus (HPV)
In the vagina how long is the fibromuscular tube?
What makes up the vagina wall?
Inner mucosa- stratified squamous epithelium
Gateway to uterus (pH acidic- protective)
Passageway for menstrual flow
Birth canal during Labor
What does the endometrium contain?
Contains uterine glands and blood vessels (spiral artieries)
Functionalis & deeper stratum balld
Functional zone thicker, undergoes changes during menstrual cycle
What is inner mucosa used for in the vagina?
Protective- luberications in intercourse
Folded in rugae
Hymen- mucous membrane covering vaginal orifice
What muscularis is present in the vagina?
Inner longitudinal & outer circular; allows vagina enlarge in intercourse & childbirth
What is the composition of the Adventitia in the vagina?
Outer loose CT, anchors vagina
What is the Female External genitalia called?
What is the vestibule of the vagina?
Urethral & vaginal openings
Labia minora skin folds borders
Clitoris: erectile structure- corpora cavernosa
What is the labia majora of the vagina?
Rounded folds of skin & fat
Medial surfaces sebaceous & sweat glands
Unite to form mons pubis ant
Elevated over pubis symphysis
What is the male version of the labia majora?
What is the male version of the labia minora?
What is the male version of the vestibule?
What is the male version of the bulb of vestibule?
Bulb of penis
What is the male version of the clitoris?
What is the male version of the Skene's glands?