The Lower Limb Flashcards Preview

Human Form and Function > The Lower Limb > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Lower Limb Deck (64):
1

What positions do humans walk in?

Bipedial position

2

Where does weight transmission occur?

The sacrum

3

What does the femur articulate with?

Tibia and patella (sesamoid bone)

4

Where is the sesamoid?

Sits central in tendon

5

Where is weight transmitted through?

The tibia

6

What do the tarsal and metatarsal bones form?

Stable, yet flexible unit

7

What is the gluteal region commonly known as?

The buttocks

8

What is the classification of the lower limb?

Gluteal region (bum)
Thigh
Knee (l. genu= bend)
Leg (l. curs)
Foot

9

Which part is classified as the leg?

From the knee joint to the ankle joint

10

What is the superior boundary of the gluteal region?

Iliac crest
Greater trochanter
Anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS)

11

What is the inferior boundary of the gluteal region?

Gluteal fold
Intergluteal fold separates the two

12

What is the difference between red and yellow marrow?

Red marrow- contains red blood cells
Yellow marrow- contains fat cells

13

What is the skeleton of the hip comprised of?

Bones form protective bony walls of pelvic cavity and part of birth canal

14

Which part of the vertebrae are involved in the skeleton of the hip?

Sacrum (5 fused vertebrae) and coccyx (3-5 fused vertebrae) (axial)

15

Which bones form the hip (3)?

Ilium (N.B. acetabulum=socket, ASIS palpable)
Ischium
Pubis (N.B. pubis symphysis) cartilage, for movement i.e. women in childbirth

16

What type of cartilage joins the hip together?

Hyaline

17

Why is hyaline cartilage used in formation of skeleton of hip?

Stable platform

18

What age roughly does the skeleton of the complete maturity?

Approx. 35 years

19

What differences can be determined by the skeleton of the hip/pelvis?

Age
Sex
Race
Height (from long bones)

20

What are the differences in females hips compared to males?

Bones are thiner
Muscular marking not as prominent
Less funnel shaped (for childbirth)
Distances between ischial spines and ischial tuberosities greater
Wider, greater sciatic notch
Sub-pubic angel approx 90 degree+

21

Where is the thigh/femoral region?

Lies between gluteal, abdominal and perineal regions

22

What are the boundaries between the thigh/femoral region?

Between abdomen and thigh is the inguinal ligament anteriorly and the hip bone medially

23

What is the anterior thigh?

Quadriceps

24

What are the quadriceps made up of?

Vastus laterlis
V. intermedius
V. medialis
Rectus femoris

25

What are the vastus muscles in the quadricep involved with?

Knee extension

26

What is the rectus femoris in the quadricep involved with?

Knee extensions and bends up the hip

27

What are the posterior thigh muscles?

Hamstrings

28

What is the bone in the thigh?

Single femur

29

Describe the femur

Single bone of thigh
Longest and heaviest bone of the body
Length is approx a quarter of an individuals height
Angle of inclination approx 125 degrees

30

How much of your body weight can you put through the femur?

20%

31

Describe a femoral fracture

More commonly the neck of femur ("hip fracture")
Greater trochanter and femoral shaft result from direct trauma (younger age group)

32

Where do the thigh and leg articulate?

The knee

33

What does the knee comprise?

Femur, tibia and patella
(fibula doesn't play any part)

34

Where is the femur expanded in the knee?

The articular sondyles (N.B. epicondyles)

35

What is the knee separated by?

Intercondylar fossa

36

What is the largest most superficial joint?

The knee

37

What type of joint is the knee?

Hinge type of synovial joint

38

What does the knee joint allow?

Flexion and extension
Gliding and rolling about a vertical axis

39

What ligaments are around the knee?

Intra/extra capsular ligaments

40

Where is the least blood supply in the knee?

Anterior cruciate ligament, more pathology affects it

41

Name the ligaments in the knee (4)

Anterior Cruciate Ligament
Posterior Cruciate Ligament
Lateral Collateral Ligament
Medial Collateral ligament

42

Name the meniscus' in the knee

Lateral meniscus
Medial meniscus

43

What is lateral collateral ligament used for (lcl)?

Prevent rubbing of bones

44

What is the purpose of the meniscus'?

Allow smooth movement of fibula and tibia

45

What is the medial meniscus joined to?

Medial collateral ligament

46

Why is there more flexibility in the lateral meniscus?

not joined to LCL, so more flexibility

47

Where does the unhappy triad occur?

ACL (anterior crruciate ligament), LCL (lateral collateral ligament), LM (lateral meniscus)

48

What is an unhappy triad?

Knee injury where 3 things go wrong at the same time

49

What is the leg skeleton formed from?

The tibia and fibula

50

Does the fibula have weight bearing functions?

No

51

Which bone can be removed for bone grafting?

Portions of the fibula

52

What are the fascial compartments of the leg?

1. Anterior
2. Lateral
3. Posterior- Superficial
Deep

53

What are the anterior facial compartments of the leg?

Dorsiflexion, inversion/eversion

54

What are the lateral facial compartments of the leg?

Foot evertors and plantar flexion

55

What are the posterior facial compartments of the leg?

Superficial- plantar flexion
Deep- flexion of toes

56

What are 2 clinical applications at the leg?

1. Tendon jerk reflex
2. Intraosseos infusion

57

What kind of joint is present at the ankle/ talocrucal region?

Synovial joint (hinge)

58

Why is a synovial joint present in the ankle?

Singel axis
Plane of movement allows dorsiflexion and plantar flexion
Talus is held firmly by the malleoli (sing. malleolus)

59

What location is the foot?

Distal to ankle

60

What is the functions of the foot?

Provides a platform for supporting the weight of the body
Important role in locomotion

61

How many tarsal bones are there?

7

62

How many metatarsal bones are there?

5

63

How many phalanges are there?

14

64

What are the regions of the foot?

Plantar region
Dorsal region
Heel region
Ball of foot