Flashcards in The Lower Limb Deck (64):
What positions do humans walk in?
Where does weight transmission occur?
What does the femur articulate with?
Tibia and patella (sesamoid bone)
Where is the sesamoid?
Sits central in tendon
Where is weight transmitted through?
What do the tarsal and metatarsal bones form?
Stable, yet flexible unit
What is the gluteal region commonly known as?
What is the classification of the lower limb?
Gluteal region (bum)
Knee (l. genu= bend)
Leg (l. curs)
Which part is classified as the leg?
From the knee joint to the ankle joint
What is the superior boundary of the gluteal region?
Anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS)
What is the inferior boundary of the gluteal region?
Intergluteal fold separates the two
What is the difference between red and yellow marrow?
Red marrow- contains red blood cells
Yellow marrow- contains fat cells
What is the skeleton of the hip comprised of?
Bones form protective bony walls of pelvic cavity and part of birth canal
Which part of the vertebrae are involved in the skeleton of the hip?
Sacrum (5 fused vertebrae) and coccyx (3-5 fused vertebrae) (axial)
Which bones form the hip (3)?
Ilium (N.B. acetabulum=socket, ASIS palpable)
Pubis (N.B. pubis symphysis) cartilage, for movement i.e. women in childbirth
What type of cartilage joins the hip together?
Why is hyaline cartilage used in formation of skeleton of hip?
What age roughly does the skeleton of the complete maturity?
Approx. 35 years
What differences can be determined by the skeleton of the hip/pelvis?
Height (from long bones)
What are the differences in females hips compared to males?
Bones are thiner
Muscular marking not as prominent
Less funnel shaped (for childbirth)
Distances between ischial spines and ischial tuberosities greater
Wider, greater sciatic notch
Sub-pubic angel approx 90 degree+
Where is the thigh/femoral region?
Lies between gluteal, abdominal and perineal regions
What are the boundaries between the thigh/femoral region?
Between abdomen and thigh is the inguinal ligament anteriorly and the hip bone medially
What is the anterior thigh?
What are the quadriceps made up of?
What are the vastus muscles in the quadricep involved with?
What is the rectus femoris in the quadricep involved with?
Knee extensions and bends up the hip
What are the posterior thigh muscles?
What is the bone in the thigh?
Describe the femur
Single bone of thigh
Longest and heaviest bone of the body
Length is approx a quarter of an individuals height
Angle of inclination approx 125 degrees
How much of your body weight can you put through the femur?
Describe a femoral fracture
More commonly the neck of femur ("hip fracture")
Greater trochanter and femoral shaft result from direct trauma (younger age group)
Where do the thigh and leg articulate?
What does the knee comprise?
Femur, tibia and patella
(fibula doesn't play any part)
Where is the femur expanded in the knee?
The articular sondyles (N.B. epicondyles)
What is the knee separated by?
What is the largest most superficial joint?
What type of joint is the knee?
Hinge type of synovial joint
What does the knee joint allow?
Flexion and extension
Gliding and rolling about a vertical axis
What ligaments are around the knee?
Intra/extra capsular ligaments
Where is the least blood supply in the knee?
Anterior cruciate ligament, more pathology affects it
Name the ligaments in the knee (4)
Anterior Cruciate Ligament
Posterior Cruciate Ligament
Lateral Collateral Ligament
Medial Collateral ligament
Name the meniscus' in the knee
What is lateral collateral ligament used for (lcl)?
Prevent rubbing of bones
What is the purpose of the meniscus'?
Allow smooth movement of fibula and tibia
What is the medial meniscus joined to?
Medial collateral ligament
Why is there more flexibility in the lateral meniscus?
not joined to LCL, so more flexibility
Where does the unhappy triad occur?
ACL (anterior crruciate ligament), LCL (lateral collateral ligament), LM (lateral meniscus)
What is an unhappy triad?
Knee injury where 3 things go wrong at the same time
What is the leg skeleton formed from?
The tibia and fibula
Does the fibula have weight bearing functions?
Which bone can be removed for bone grafting?
Portions of the fibula
What are the fascial compartments of the leg?
3. Posterior- Superficial
What are the anterior facial compartments of the leg?
What are the lateral facial compartments of the leg?
Foot evertors and plantar flexion
What are the posterior facial compartments of the leg?
Superficial- plantar flexion
Deep- flexion of toes
What are 2 clinical applications at the leg?
1. Tendon jerk reflex
2. Intraosseos infusion
What kind of joint is present at the ankle/ talocrucal region?
Synovial joint (hinge)
Why is a synovial joint present in the ankle?
Plane of movement allows dorsiflexion and plantar flexion
Talus is held firmly by the malleoli (sing. malleolus)
What location is the foot?
Distal to ankle
What is the functions of the foot?
Provides a platform for supporting the weight of the body
Important role in locomotion
How many tarsal bones are there?
How many metatarsal bones are there?
How many phalanges are there?