Flashcards in The vessels and nerves of the upper limb Deck (34):
What is the arterial plan of the upper limb?
Ascending Aorta + Aoritc arch
Brachiocephalic- R common carotid & R Subclavian (branch off)
Left common carotid
Thoracic + Abdominal aorta- branches into R comon iliac and L common iliac
What is the brachiocephalic?
First branch off the aorta- divides to form the right subclavian and the right common carotid artery
What is the right subclavian artery?
Extends from brachiocephalic artery to inferior border of first rib; gives rise to a number of branches at the base of the neck
What is the internal thoracic (mammary) artery?
Arises from the first part of subclavian artery and descends posterior to costal cartilages of superior six ribs just lateral to sternum; terminates at the sixth intercostal space by bifurcating and sends branches into intercostal spaces
What does bifurcating mean?
Branching into two arteries
What is the vertebral artery?
Major branch of right subclavian artery to brain before it passes into the axilla; ascend through neck; passes through transverse foramina of cervical vertebrae, and enters skull via foramen magnum to reach inferior surface of brain
What does the vertebral artery and left vertebral artery unite to form?
Basilar artery- passes along midline and anterior aspect of brain stem and gives off several branches (posterior cerebral and cerebellar arteries)
What is the axillary artery?
Continuation of right subclavian artery into the axilla; begins where subclavian artery passes inferior border of first rib and ends as it crosses distal margins of teres muscles; gives rise to numerous branches in axilla
Which artery is blood pressure usually measured by?
What is the brachial artery
Continuation of axillary artery
Where does brachial artery begin
Distal border of teres major muscle
Where does brachial artery end?
Terminates by bifurcating into radial and ulnar arteries just distal to bend of elbow; superficial and palpable along medial side of arm
What happens to the brachial artery as it descends towards the elbow?
Curves laterally and passes through cubital fossa
What is cubital fossa?
Triangular depression anterior to elbow, can easily detect pulse here
What is the radial artery?
Smaller branch of brachial bifurcation, direct continuation of brachial artery
Where does the radial artery pass?
Lateral (radial) aspect of forearm and enters wrist where it bifurcates into superficial and deep branches that anastomose with corresponding branches of the ulnar
What does anastomose mean?
What side of the arm does the radial artery travel down?
Side near thumb
What side of the arm does the ulnar artery travel down?
Side near pinky
What is the ulnar artery?
Larger branch of brachial artery which passes along medial (ulnar) aspect of the forearm and then into the wrist, where is branches into superficial and deep branches that enter the hand
What do the radial and ulnar arteries anastomose to form?
Palmar arches of hand
What is the superficial palmer arch?
Formed mainly by superficial branch of ulnar artery, with contribution from superficial branch of radial artery; superficial to long flexor tendons of fingers and extends across palm at base of metacarpals
What does the superficial palmer arch give rise to?
Common palmar digital arteries each which divide into proper palmar digital arteries
What is deep palmar arch?
Arises from deep branch of radial artery, but receives contribution from deep branch of ulnar; deep to long flexor tendons of fingers and extends across palm at base of metacarpals
What does the deep palmar arch give rise to?
Common palmar digital arteries, each of which anastomose with common palmar digital arteries from superficial arch
What is the arm called?
What is the route of anastomoses of the upper limb?
1st rib (scapular)- Subclavian, Axillary, Brachial
Elbow- Branching- medial (ulnar), lateral (radial)
Wrist + Hand
What is the deep networks in the hand supplied by?
Radial artery, ends up in ulnar
What is the pathway of deep veins drainage?
Deep veins-> flank arteries -> converge into axillary
What is the pathway of superficial veins drainage?
Superficial veins-> converge into cephalic and bailic vein
What is the pathway of perforating veins drainage?
Perforating veins-> connect superficial and deep veins
How do veins get squished by arteries?
Arteries pulse and squish veins, veins bounce which allow movement of blood
Deep veins following brachial radial and ulnar arteries
Where is the median nerve?
In the forearm