Respiration Flashcards Preview

Human Form and Function > Respiration > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiration Deck (39):
1

diaphragm

dome-shaped skeletal muscle between the thoracic and abdominal cavities
very thin tissue
xiphoid attached to lower ribs

2

pleura

slippery, double-layered membrane that covers the viscera within the thoracic and abdominal cavities and lines the walls of thorax and abdomen

3

visceral pleura

clings to the surface of the lungs

4

parietal pleura

lines the chest walls, covering the superior surface of the diaphragm

5

pleural cavity

in between the two pleural layers, filled with a small amount of lubricating fluid

6

trachea

tubular passageway for air

7

how do vena cava, sort and oesophagus go through diaphragm

3 holes:
foramen for inferior vena cava (in central tendon)
foramen for aorta (at bottom of diaphragm)
foramen for oesophagus

8

what type of muscle forms diaphragm

skeletal muscle - voluntary control of breathing (important for i.e. speaking)

9

active breathing

depends on diaphragm
assisted by movement of rib cage

10

what happens to the diaphragm when we inhale (breathe in)

diaphragm goes down 2-3 vertical levels

11

true ribs

upper ribs
1-7
articulate with the sternum via costal cartilages (attached to sternum)

12

false ribs

lower ribs
8-10
they do not articulate with the sternum
they articulate with costa cartilage above

13

floating ribs

last 2 ribs
11-12
not in contact with the sternum, floating

14

joint between vertebral head and head of rib

synovial joint

15

joint between transverse process and tubercle of rib

synovial joint

16

intercostal space

spaces between ribs

17

layers of intercostal space (3)

external, internal and innermost intercostal muscle

18

external intercostal muscle

2 handles
bucket handle pulls ribs upwards and outwards
pump handle sternum moves upwards and forwards

19

internal intercostal muscle

for exhalation
pulls ribs backwards and downwards

20

inhalation

chest expands, diaphragm contracts and goes down 2-3 vertical levels

21

exhalation

chest contracts, diaphragm relaxes and goes up 2-3 vertical levels

22

extreme breathing

involves rib cage, diaphragm
involves muscles of neck and trunk as accessory muscles of respiration

23

why do lungs expand

when the chest expands, the parietal pleura is pulled outwards due to the tensions between the parietal and visceral pleuras caused by the fluid in between

24

how many breaths needed to recycle the air

5 - with each breath, 20% of air is exchanged

25

why do lungs contract

they contain a vast network of elastic fibres
after expansion, the lung wants to return to original form and size

26

lung resting size

size of a fist/tennis ball
regardless of exhalation/inhalation

27

respiratory epithelium functions

lines the respiratory tract
moistens and protects the airways
barrier to potential pathogens and foreign particles
prevents infection and tissue injury by mucociliary clearance

28

cells that form the respiratory epithelium

ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium
goblet cells that contain mucus granules to secrete mucus

29

mucus

helps maintain epithelial moisture
traps particles and pathogens moving through the airway

30

mucus layers

watery layer humidifies air - sheet is moved by cilia
sticky layer cleans the air - particles stick to this layer

31

how is air that come in airways heated

by blood vessels underneath the cells

32

what lines the internal nose (nose cavity)

lined with muscle and mucous membrane

33

nasal septum

vertical portion that divides the nasal cavity into right and left

34

what are paranasal sinuses

cavities lines with mucous membrane that are continuous with the lining of the nasal cavity - drain mucus

35

paranasal sinuses

ethmoid labyrinth and maxillae (maxillary sinus)

36

conchae

bones surrounded by curved holes so the air, when it enters through the nostrils, spins and the dust particles are thrown to the mucus lining
they increase surface area of internal nose

37

divisions of conchae

superior, middle and inferior - extend put of each lateral wall of the nasal cavity

38

vestibule

where the air passes first when entering the nostrils
lines by skin containing coarse hairs that filter out large dust particles

39

olfactory epithelium

made up of olfactory receptor cells, supporting cells and basal cells
contains cilia but not goblet cells.