Flashcards in The vessels and nerves of the lower limb Deck (53):
How does the abdominal aorta end?
By dividing into the right an left common iliac arteries
What do the right and left common iliac arteries divide into?
The internal and external iliac arteries
What do the external iliacs become?
The femoral arteries in the thighs
Which artery comes off the femoral artery?
The popiteal artery (posterior to the knee)
Which artery follows after the popiteal artery?
The anterior and posterior tibial arteries
Overall what is the sequence of arteries of the lower limb from the aorta to the iliac arteries?
Abdominal aorta-> left and right common iliac artery-> right internal iliac and right external iliac
Overall what is the sequence of arteries of the lower limb from the iliac arteries to the leg?
Right external iliac-> right femoral-> right popilteal-> right anterior and right posterior tibial
Where do the common iliac arteries arise from?
Abdominal aorta, about level of fourth lumbar vertebrae
What is the internal iliac artery ?
Primary arteries of the pelvis
Where does the internal iliac artery begin?
At the bifurcation of common iliac arteries anterior to sacroiliac joint at level of lumbosacral intervertebral disc
Where does the internal iliac artery pass?
Pass posteriorly as they descend into pelvis and divide into anterior and posterior divisions
Is the external iliac artery smaller or larger than the internal iliac artery?
Where does the external iliac artery delay?
Descend along medial border of psoas major muscles following from pelvic brim, pass posterior to midportion of inguinal ligaments, and become femoral arteries as they pass beneath inguinal ligaments and enter the thigh
What is the femoral artery?
Continuation of external iliac artery as they enter the thigh
Where does the femoral artery pass?
Pass beneath sartorius muscle as they descend along anteromedial aspects of thighs
Where does the femoral artery follow after its passed the satorius muscle
Follow its course to distal end of thigh where they pass through opening in tendon of adductor magnus muscle to end at posterior aspect of knee
What happens when the femoral artery reaches the posterior artery of the knee?
Becomes popilteal artery
What is the popliteal artery?
Continuation of femoral arteries through popliteal fossa
What is the popliteal fossa?
Space behind the knee
Where does the popliteal artery descend?
Descend to inferior border of popliteus muscles, where they divide into anterior and posterior tibial arteries
What is the anterior tibial artery?
Descend from bifurcation of popliteal arteries at distal borders of popliteus muscles
Is the anterior tibial or posterior tibial artery the largest?
Posterior tibial artery
Where does the anterior tibial artery pass?
Pass over interosseous membrane of tibia and fibula
What does the anterior tibial artery become?
Dorsalis pedis arteries at ankles
What do the dorsal arteries branch into?
Give off transverse branch at first medial cuneiform bone called arcuate arteries that run laterally over the metatarsals
What do the arcurate arteries branch to?
Branch dorsal metatarsal arteries, which course along metatarsal bones.
What do dorsal metatarsal arteries branch into?
Terminate by dividing into dorsal digit arteries, which pass into toes
What are posterior tibial arteries?
Direct continuations of popliteal arteries, descend from bifurcation of popliteal arteries
Where do the posterior tibial arteries?
Pass down posterior muscular compartment of legs deep to soleus muscles
Pass posterior to medial malleolus at distal end of leg and curve forward toward plantar surfaces of feet
Pass deep to flexor retinaculum on medial side of feet
Where do posterior tibial arteries terminate?
Terminate by branching into medial and planar arteries
What other artery do the posterior tibial arteries give rise to
Fibular (perinoeal) arteries in upper third of leg
Where do the smaller medial plantar arteries pass?
Along the medial side of sole
Where do the larger lateral plantar arteries pass?
Angle toward lateral side of the sole and unite with branch of dorsalis pedis arteries of foot to form plantar arch
Where does the plantar arch begin?
Begins at the base of fifth metatarsal and extends medially across metatarsals
What artery branches of the plantar arch?
Plantar metatarsal arteries, which course along plantar surface of metatarsal bones
Where do plantar metatarsal arteries terminate?
Terminate by dividing into plantar digit arteries that pass into the toes
Where's the obturatory artery?
Emerges out of the pelvis- travel interiorly from iliac artery
Supply anterior portion of femoral
What does the internal iliac artery supply?
Goes down into pelvis and provides blood
What do the superior and inferior gluteal artery supply?
Is the amount of blood higher in the internal or external iliac?
Where do the deep veins drain?
Converge and drain eventually into the femoral vein
How many veins flank an artery?
Two deep veins for each artery
Where does the small saphenous drain?
Where does the great saphenous drain?
Why are there valves in veins?
Allows undirectional flow
Prevents the backflow of blood
What do perforating (communicating) veins do?
Connect the two systems
Do perforating veins have valves?
Why do perforating veins have valves
Allow flow from the superficial to the deep network
What are the three major nerves for motor and sensory innervation?
What are the characteristics of the Sciatic nerve?
Longest and thickest of the body
What are the characteristics of the Femoral and Obturator nerves?
Have the most innervation
What are the cutaneous nerves?
Lateral cutaneous of the thigh
Posterior cutaneous of the thigh
Other cutaneous branches of the 3 major nerves