IT152_Lecture_03_Multimedia_SDLC_Principles_2013a Flashcards Preview

New Multimedia > IT152_Lecture_03_Multimedia_SDLC_Principles_2013a > Flashcards

Flashcards in IT152_Lecture_03_Multimedia_SDLC_Principles_2013a Deck (75):

SDLC stands for...?

System Development Life Cycle.


An SDLC defines...?

the stages that a system goes through to its creation.

(It also defines a standard step of stages in the development of an application and what these steps contain so that everyone is aware of what needs to be done when it will be done.


Many SDLCs in use all ...?

follow the same fundamental principles, but with different emphasis depending on the developer's experience.


To create a successful project you have to first understand...?

the life cycle of a project. You will be a part of this life cycle.


The key lesson in viewing this cycle is that...?

each step depends on the step before it.


If the cycle gets short circuited or steps skipped you run the risk of...?

mass confusion and the project failure to meet the client or users needs.


Even small projects should follow some form of the Systems Development Life Cycle which is used to...?

- Save time and money
- Ensure all steps and reqs. are covered,
- Resources are used efficiently
- Solve dispute if there is any.
- Allow for multiple modifications.


Rule of thumb for development is...?

80% planning, and 20% production.


Cost to fix an error increases as...?

it is found later and later in the software lifecycle.


How is multimedia different to normal development software...?

multimedia systems are developed in a similar way to software but there are a key number of differences.
Main difference being:
- IMM (Interactive Multimedia) development is more iterative (repetitive)
- Output is unlikely to be linear (like film)
- Design (interface, graphic and interaction design) is critical.
- Storyboard plays a key role.
- The user is more closely involved
- Prototyping is likely to be used.
(Skills : from different discipline areas - film, design, animation, programming, marketing. People : Keeping such disparate groups of people all on target for their own tasks. Data: often on different media types)


Software Engineering processes are composed of many activities, notably...?

- Requirements Analysis
- Specification
- Software architecture
- Coding/Design
- Testing
- Documentation.


Software Engineering Processes Activities:
1. Requirements Analysis...?

Extracting the requirements of a desired software product is the first task in creating it.


Software Engineering Processes Activities:
2. Specifications...?

The task of precisely describing the software to be written, in a mathematically rigorous way.


Software Engineering Process Activities:
3. Software Architecture...?

Refers to an abstract representation of that system. Architecture is concerned with making sure the software system will meet the requirements of the product, as well as ensuring that future requirements can be addressed.


Software Engineering Process Activities:
4. Coding / Design...?

Reducing a design to code may be the most obvious part of the software engineering job, but it is not necessarily the largest portion.


Software Engineering Process Activities:
5. Testing...?

Testing of parts of software, especially where code by two different engineers must work together, falls to the software engineer.


Standard SDLC:
Terms of Reference...?

The management will decide what capabilities and objectives they wish the new system to incorporate;


Standard SDLC:
Feasibility Study...?

Asks whether the managements' concept of their desired new system is actually an achievable, realistic goal, in-terms of money, time and end result difference to the original system. Often, it may be decided to simply update an existing system, rather than to completely replace one;


Standard SDLC:
Fact finding and Recording...?

how is the current system used? Often questionnaires are used here, but also just monitoring (watching) the staff to see how they work is better, as people will often be reluctant to be entirely honest through embarrassment about the parts of the existing system they have trouble with and find difficult if merely asked;


Standard SDLC:

free from any cost or realisticality constraints, this stage lets minds run wild as 'wonder systems' can be thought-up, though all must incorporate everything asked for by the management in the Terms Of Reference section;


Standard SDLC:

designers will produce one or more 'models' of what they see a system eventually looking like, with ideas from the analysis section either used to discarded. A document will be produced with a description of the system, but nothing is specific — they might say 'touchscreen' or 'GUI operating system', but not mention any specific brands;


Standard SDLC:
System Specification...?

having generically decided on which software packages to use and hardware to incorporate, you now have to be very specific, choosing exact models, brands and suppliers for each software application and hardware device;


Standard SDLC:
Implementation and Review...?

set-up and install the new system (including writing any custom (bespoke) code required), train staff to use it and then monitor how it operates for initial problems, and then regularly maintain thereafter. During this stage, any old system that was in-use will usually be discarded once the new one has proved it is reliable and as usable


What does developing a multimedia application development involve...?

- a large number of people and skills
- Average team size is 8-12
- large amounts of data.
- Complex project administration task
- High costs


SDLC Contemporary Models inlcude...?

Model 1: The waterfall model:
- This is the classic SDLC model, with a linear and sequential method that has goals for each development phase.
- The waterfall model simplifies task scheduling, because there are no iterative or overlapping steps.
- Drawback's of the waterfall is that it does not allow changes or revision, some activities can't start before others, users are secondary. (See slide 10 for Diagram)

1. Analysis -what?
2. Pre-testing -how?
3. Prototype -look?
4. Alpha Development - design
5. Beta Development - content
6. Delivery
All of these steps are done 1 after the other but can be modified to be an iterative-waterfall
Iterative = repeat steps


Model 2: the Prototyping model:
A prototype is an...?

early approximation or sample of a final system or product.


Model 2: the Prototyping model:
In this model, a prototype is built, tested and then...?

reworked as necessary until acceptable prototype is finally achieved from which the complete system or product can now be developed.


Model 2: the Prototyping model:
Use frequently for...?



Model 2: the Prototyping Model:
Prototypes are often used as...?

an addition to the SDLC model in multimedia.


Model 2: the Prototyping Model:
For a large multimedia application you may need to develop a prototype. Why?

- Firstly, you will not be aware of the capabilities of some or perhaps all of the media you need to use.
- Secondly, there are normally a lot of formal management and/or client approval steps and restrictions applied to your work.
- Allows you to make changes without doing too much development.
(Nonetheless, the SDLC approach is still needed and will still be helpful to you)
(See slide 14 for a Prototype model)


Model 3 Spiral:
This model of development combines...?

the features of the prototyping model and the waterfall model. The spiral model is favored for large, expensive, and complicated projects. (Example on Slide 15)


Model 4: Rapid application development (RAD)
This model is based on the concept that better products can be developed more quickly by...?

Using workshops or focus groups to gather system requirements; allows for prototyping and reiterative testing of designs


The dynamic systems development method (DSDM) provides a framework for...?

an iterative and incremental approach to the development of Information Systems. DSDM was developed in the UK in the 90's and was first released in 95. By 2005 the fourth version of the DSDM manual is in use. DSDM was developed by a consortium of vendors and experts in the field of IS development, the DSM Consortium, combining their best-practice experiences. As an extension of rapid application development, DSDM focuses on Information system projects that are characterized by tight timescales and budgets. DSDM addresses the problems that frequently occur in the development of Information systems with regards to going over time and budget and other common reason for project failure such as lack of user involvement and top management commitment. (Example on slide 17)


Main phases in multimedia development:
Phase 1...?

The planning and Analysis Phase
- Preliminary Needs Assessment
- Analysis and Design


Main phases in multimedia development:
Phase 2...?

The creating and developing Phase
- Authoring and Production


Main Phases in multimedia development:
Phase 3...?

The Production Phase
- Testing and Production.


Steps in Developing Interactive Multimedia...?

- Approx time spent on each phase:
- Phase 1 - Planning+analysis -?
- Phase 2 - Creating -?
- Phase 3 - Production -?

- Phase 1 -35%
- Phase 2 -40%
- Phase 3 -25%


Typical SDLC for multimedia...?

Phase 1 - Planning and analysis
- Step 1: Developing the concept
- Step 2: Stating the purpose
- Step 3: Identifying the target audience
- Step 4: Developing the specifications
- Step 5: Design
- Step 6: Storyboard and navigation
- Step 7: Developing the content.
Phase 2 - Creating or development
- Step 8: Authoring the title
- Step 9: Testing the title
Phase 3 - Production
- Step 10: Testing the title
- Step 11: Post-production


Phase 1 - Planning and analysis
Step 1: Developing the concept...?

- What, in general do we want to do?
- Why?
- Who are the end users
- What is the purpose? (To entertain, inform, persuade, educate?)
- Output: - Request for proposal (RFP)

- Generating ideas
- Brainstorming
- Checklists with evaluation criteria
- Evaluate market.


Phase 1 - Planning and analysis
Step 2: Stating the Purpose...?

- What, specifically, do we want to accomplish?"
- Sometimes referred to as the ‘Creative Brief’
- Objectives: precise statements of what the project will accomplish
- Goals:broad statements of what the project will accomplish
- These can be written from the view of the user or the developer.
- Writing goals and objectives is critical as they guide the development process


Creative Brief...?

Provides the summary of design strategy and process including:
- Objectives
- Purpose
- Target Audience.


Example of an Objective...?

- To develop an entertainment title based on the book Tracks, which chronicles one woman's journey across the continent of Australia.

- The title will include an interactive map that shows her progress and allows the user to view photographs and text about any selected map location. Sound clips will provide narration of the author's adventures in her own voice. The title will be rich with photographs of the outback and music native to Australia.

- The product will place in the top five for its category at the annual CD awards this year.

- By using this CD the user will be able to appreciate the diversity of Australia’s wildlife,…


Describing the Audience...?

- A profile of the target population is required under these headings:
- Demographics - age, education, computer literacy,
- Lifestyle and attitudes
- Subject knowledge
- Attitudes and prejudices, etc
- The more precisely an audience is define, the smaller it is and therefore easier to target.
- The larger the audience, the more difficult it is to address their needs.


Phase 1 - Planning and analysis
Step 3: Identifying the Target Audience...?

- Consider the audience: "Who will use the title?"
- Identifying the audience allows the developer to tailor the title for the user's needs
- Focus on the user
- Tailor product to meet user’s needs and wants
- Audience sets the tone, approach, metaphor and emphasis of site
- Tone: makes a statement
- Approach: direction to user
- Metaphor: a theme to aid user
- Emphasis: whether site will utilize multimedia elements


Phase 1 - Planning and analysis
Step 4: Developing the Specifications...?

- "What precisely does the title include and how does it work?"
- Specifications include
- What will be included on each screen
- Arrangement of each element
- Functionality of each object
- Detailed specifications save time and money
- Specifications need to be signed-off by client to prevent ‘feature creep’


Elements required in all specifications...?

- Target playback systems
- Elements to be included
- Functionality
- User interface
- Budget and timeline


Phase 1 - Planning and analysis
Step 5: Design:
Determining the Treatment...?

This is the design or "What is the 'look and feel'?“ and is determined by the:

Graphic Design – Tone/style and includes colours, background,images and the general style

Interface Design determines the layout and how the user will interact with the software



Humorous, serious, light or formal? Target audience and desired image determine the tone



How much direction will be provided to the user? Alternatives
Menu choices
"Host" or "guide“
How much feedback will be provided to the user?



Can add interest or aid in understanding the title. Examples
Space travel through different content areas
Sailing adventure that allows user to choose island destinations



Which multimedia elements will be emphasized? Determined by concept, objectives, and audience
Budget and time constraints may exclude emphasis on certain elements



Delivery platform –what equipment will be used by the user?
Legal and ethics issues
Resources (time,money,people)


Design is described in a range of documents...?

- Storyboards: describes the details of every screen, including text, audio narration, video, and a description or sketch of graphics
- Scripts: design content in textual form. Notes on each screen provide direction to the programmer and client about special navigation or other options
- Flowcharts: show navigational structure
- Prototype usually created at end of this stage
- Design in detail before programming!!


Phase 1 - Planning and analysis
Step 6: Storyboard and Navigation...?

“To answer “how” questions - What do the screens look like, how are they linked, how will the user interact with the product?“

A ‘flowchart’ or roadmap is created to act as a:
- Visual guide of the title or site
- Graphical representation of how info in site is organized and flows
- Flowchart is a flexible document
- Used to illustrate interactivity

Then a storyboard
- Provides a visual overview of the project; and communicates your ideas to team members and clients.


How do you create a Navigation flowchart...?

You should apply standard information organisation techniques such as an index card sort with your target audience. Take the most common pattern that emerges and create a flowchart starting with the opening screen. (see the screen on Information Structures following)
The flowchart shows the interaction and relationships of different elements and shows how the content fits in the different screens in the levels below the opening screen.


Navigation structures...?

The way in which information is organized also referred to as the Information Design

Organizational structures can be: (how the info. is organised)
- Hierarchical
- Nonlinear
- Linear
- Hub and Spokes
- Data-base driven

Options for navigation: (how the user accesses that information)
- Sequential navigation
- Linear path (beginning, middle, end)
- Buttons or graphics for Next, Forward, Continue, Previous, Back
- Random navigation
- Topical navigation
- Exploratory navigation
- Defined in a flowchart


Information Design is concerned with..?

creating clear and meaningful arrangement of information content.
Information design can affect color, layout, sequence and styles of any media, but it is most concerned with the organization of the content in an interactive product.


Establishing the information structure...?

Using a range of tools with users such as card or index sorts helps to establish the organization of content.


Storyboard Flowcharts:
Hierarchical structure:
(Example on slide 34)

Top-down approach

Sets and subsets of information form a hierarchy

Information is chunked down

Good for content that can be related in groups


Storyboard Flowcharts:
Non-Linear structure:
(Example on slide 35)

No prescribed or sequential path
Links from one discrete piece of information to another
Good for giving user control where info. unrelated
Can confuse user if lots of content


Storyboard Flowcharts:
Hub and Spokes Structure:
(Example on slide 36)
(Example on 37)

Cumbersome navigation method
Relies too heavily on browser’s Back button
Users must return to the home page to go to the other pages of Web site.


(Storyboard template on slide 39,40)

- Describe the content,layout and sequence of each page
- Specify how text, graphics, animation, multimedia elements are positioned on each screen
- Design changes here save money on development
- Storyboards answer “how” questions related to the site
- Indicate how the user will interact with the content ie how will it function?


Wireframes created to answer...?

“what” questions related to site
Text-only skeletal structure of every click-through possibility


The role of a storyboard is...?

To provide an overview of the project and communicating your ideas to team members and clients.

To specify the screen layouts (design and style)

To provide a guide for the development team especially the programmer/designer

To illustrate the links among screens
To illustrate the functionality of the objects
Saves a whole lot of rework of the project


Creating the storyboard...?

How do you create a Storyboard?
The first storyboards are done in pencil, hand drawn to provide a visual of the concept.*
This stage keeps the client focused on how they navigate through the product.
The storyboard illustrates the scene by scene plan for telling the story.
Then notes about the media, and what the user will do are added to guide the developer.


Phase 2 - Creating
Step 7: Developing the Content.

This stage is "Creating the pieces"

What is the level of quality for the content?
How will the content be generated?
Who will acquire copyrights and licensing agreements?
How will the content be organised?
How will the content be archived and documented?


Instructional Design (only if required)...?

Instructional Designers are vital for educational products or where the user is required to LEARN

In this case learning content needs to be:

- provided by SMEs (subject matter experts)
- structured to suit the user and purpose of the product
- Called an “instructional strategy” that results in a user-interface


Phase 2- Creating
Step 8: Authoring the Title

- Authoring is the multimedia term for software development
- "Bringing it all together"
- Specifications and the storyboard determine authoring requirements
- Programmer, instructional designer, and content producers must work together to be sure that the specifications are being met.


Step 8: Authoring the Title: Content...?

- Prototyping
- The prototyping process is iterative and interactive, involving a cycle of creation and trying out your concepts from the storyboards and sample media acquisition.
- Storyboards used in combination with prototypes are interactive mediums that sequentially display the functions an application system will perform.
- Used to refine and confirm the product in a RAD type model before committing to the final authoring build.

Final Copy and Content Development
- Create, acquire and prepare all photographs, user interface graphics, and other illustrations
- Model, animate and render all 3D animation components
- Record, digitize and composite all audio/video components
- Edit and process all textual components
- Acquire and prepare all external components such as install software, databases, linked websites, etc.


Step 8: Authoring the Title : Creation...?

Programming, Testing & Mastering
- Build authoring platform framework in tool such as Director
- Import content
- Develop all programming components
- Test for proper function and performance targets
- Optimize performance for each platform
- Burn beta version for customer content review and functional testing
- Burn gold master for replication


Step 9: Production -Testing the Title

- Testing asks -- "Does it work the way it was planned?"
- Functional Testing means examining a project's performance according to agreed specifications
- This will include the robustness of the code, the structure and content of the program, the interface, the interactivity, the look and feel.

Goals of testing are:
- To remove bugs and errors
- Ensure visual and operational accuracy
- Ensure the client’s requirements have been met
- Ensure the specification agreed upon has been met


Testing Title Functionality...?

Functional testing -- Does the title work?

Alpha testing
- Conducted in-house
- Users try to make the program crash
Beta testing
- Conducted with selected potential users
- Feedback is collected from as many users as possible


Phase 3 - Production
Step 10: Testing Title Design.

Usability testing
- How does the user interact with the title?
- Does the user understand the overall navigation scheme and metaphors?
- Does the user find the title easy to use?

At this stage changes may be documented and held over to the next version


Phase 3- Post-Production

- Complete documentation
- Specs, storyboard, testing sheets, reports, user guide
- Prepare packaging and promotional material
- Press announcements
- Prepare technical support
- Prepare gold master / Replicate master
- Manufacture CD-ROMs
- Print and/or label CD-ROMs Hold party!


Key terms...?

alpha testing
beta testing
exploratory navigation
“look and feel”

sequential navigation
topical navigation
user interface