Kidney Stones Flashcards Preview

Renal/Resp > Kidney Stones > Flashcards

Flashcards in Kidney Stones Deck (23):
1

medullary sponge kidney

interstitial crystallization

nephrocalcinosis

2

stone forming diseases and drug related disorders > 

neprholithiasis / urolithiasis

3

in neprhocalcinosis, crystal components found in 

body of kidney (vs renal pelvis)

4

majority of kidney stones made up of

calcium oxilate

5

struvite cyrstals

mg amonium phosphate - dependent on bacteria in urine raising pH

6

drugs with high stone causing rate

indinavir

acyclovir

triamterene

sulfamethoxazole

7

genetic stone causing disease stone make-up

cystinuria

l-cystine

8

genetic stone causing disease stone make-up 

primary hyperoxalosis

calcium oxalate

9

genetic stone causing disease stone make-up

dent disease

calcium oxalate or calcium phosphate

10

genetic stone causing disease stone make-up

familal hypomagnesemia with hyper calcimia and neprhocalcinosis

calcium, phosphate

11

genetic stone causing disease stone make-up

adenosine phosphosribosyltranferase deficiency

2-8 dihydroxyyadenine

12

genetic stone causing disease stone make-up

distal renal tubular acidosis

calcium phosphate

13

mutations in L-cystine stone disease

type A - SLC3A1 recessive, proximal tubule S3

 

type B SLC7A9 - incompletely dominant, transporter proximal tubule

14

rare recessive disorders of liver enzymes leading to excessive endogenous oxalate synthesis

primary hyperoxalosis / hyperoxaluira

15

stone risk factors (non-diet)

previous renal disease

IBD/ short gut

hyperparathyoidism

hypercalcemia of CA, sarcoid

Gout 

HIV

16

diet risk factors

low fluid

high salt

high protein

low calcium

high oxalate (spinach, beet, rhubarb, nuts, beans, chocolate, soy)

17

chronic treatments, cysteine stones

dilution

alkalinize urine

cystine binding drugs (disulfide exchange)

(penicillamine, thipronin, captopril)

18

chronic treatment uric acid

dilution

low protein high fruit diet

alkanize urine

xanthin oxidase inhibitors (Allopurinol, Febuxostat)

19

chronic treatment struvite

dilution 

sterilize urine (eliminate urea splitting bacteria)

remove residual stone material (surgical)

Urease inhibitors (acetohydroxamic acid) 

chemolysis (hemiacidrin)

20

chronic treatment calcium stones

dilution

maintian normal Ca intake

reduce urine calcium 

Reduce urine oxalate

increase urine citrate 

21

in chronic calcium stones, reduce urine calcium via

limit Na and protein in diet

thiazide diuretic

22

in chronic calcium stones, reduce urine oxalate by

adding calcium or limiting oxalate in diet

add pyridoxine

23

in chronic calcium stones,increase urine citrate via

reduced protein, increased fruit

add citrate or bicarb supplements