Knee Joint Flashcards Preview

Jonathan's Locomotor > Knee Joint > Flashcards

Flashcards in Knee Joint Deck (32):
1

What kind of joint is the knee joint?

It's a modified hinge joint, allowing some rotation to change direction of movement

2

When can rotation occur at the knee joint?

when the knee is in flexion

3

Is the patella enclosed in the joint capsule?

Yes

4

What are the three paired structures for stability at the knee?

collateral ligaments
cruciate ligaments
menisci

5

What's the functional difference between epicondyles and condyles of the femur

epicondyles are located laterally, for attachment of muscles
condyles are articular surfaces with condyles of tibia

6

T/F The lateral condyle is larger than the medial condyle

False, medial one is larger`

7

When does the screw-home mechanism occur?

When the knee is in terminal extension, and ACL pulls the femur in medially to lock

8

T/F Flexion is passive

false, flexion is active, extension is passive

9

what is the function of popliteus muscle

unlocking the knee joint by providing lateral rotation on the femur

10

Are cruciate ligaments intra-synovial?

No, they are extra-synovial, but intracapsular

11

Why doesn't the synovial membrane cover the whole menisci?

menisci is the point of articulation, and synovial membrane has rich neurovascular supply. It doesn't cover the whole menisci so irritation can be prevented

12

Why is there bleeding in the joint when a ligament in the capsule is torn

synovial membrane is likely to get damaged as well, so there is bleeding

13

What are the anterior muscle reinforcing the joint?

quadriceps, the femoris muscle

14

what are the lateral reinforcements of the joint?

popliteus, biceps femoris, iliotibial tract

15

What are the medial reinforcements of the joint?

pes anserinus, complex of tendons composed of satorius, gracilis, bursa, semitendinosus

16

What does "say grace before tea" stand for

Satorius
Gracilis
Bursa
Tendon of semitendinosus

17

What are the posterior reinforcements of the joint?

tendon of semimembranosus

18

Does the suprapatellar bursa communicate with the joint cavity?

Yes, so any infection can travel into the capsule

19

What are the attachments of ACL

anteriorly on the tibia
lateral condyle of femur

20

What are the attachments of the PCL

posteriorly on the tibia
medial condyle of femur

21

What is the action of ACL?

stops anterior displacement of tibia or posterior displacement of femur

22

In what situation in the ACL most commonly injured

upper leg rotates while lower leg is stationary

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lpIOMuqXWrE

23

What is the test for PCL injury?

posterior draw test

24

What does the deep medial collateral ligament blend with

The medial meniscus

25

How does medial collateral ligament act as a secondary restrain for ACL

because the course of collateral ligament runs slightly anteriorly to prevent anterior displacement of tibia

26

What is the unhappy triad?

ACL, medial collateral ligament, medial meniscus. Usually damaged due to lateral rotational movement

27

What is the function of lateral collateral ligament

resisting medial movement of the tibia

28

What is the function of menisci?

shock absorb
distribute weight by increasing area of contact

29

Why is the medial meniscus more likely to be injured?

because it is held in place by the MCL

30

What are the two passive structures maintaining the patella alignment

raised lip on lateral femoral condyle
medial patellar retinaculum

31

What is the active structure maintaining patella alignment

vastus medialis

32

What is chondromalacia patella

inflammation of underside of the patella due to abnormal traction