Malaria Flashcards Preview

Jonathan's Locomotor > Malaria > Flashcards

Flashcards in Malaria Deck (18):
1

What's the limiting factor for the transmission of malaria?

Transmitted by mosquitoes, no person-to-person transmission + there is an incubation/replication period within mosquito. 2 weeks before it can infect humans

2

What are the two major malaria species causing human disease?

P. falciparum
P. vivax

3

T/F P. vivax poses huge health burden in Africa

False, sickle cell provides immunity against vivax in particular

4

Which Plasmodium species causes zoonotic infection

P. knowlesi

5

What are the two forms of malaria parasite?

Merozoites
Sporozoties

6

What's the pathophysiology of malaria infection?

mosquito injects parasite. Sporozoites parasite invades liver within 1-2 hours, followed by 7-10 days incubation. Merozoites eventually burst out of hepatocytes and enter blood stage infection

7

How does malaria cause metabolic acidosis

malaria induced haemolysis, leading to reduced tissue perfusion, and metabolic acidosis, which will then cause respiratory distress

8

What is the treatment for severe malaria?

IV infusion of anti-malarial artemisinin + supportive treatment

9

What are the consequences of unrestricted replication of malaria in blood?

accumulation of parasites in vital organs
inflammatory responses
RBC destruction

10

T/F P. vivax can be completely cleared from blood

True

P. falciparum is more challenging to treat

11

T/F We cannot generate immunity against malaria

False, but only after many episodes

12

What are the three main types of malaria immunity?

Immunity against severe malaria, any malaria, or malaria in pregnancy

13

What are some reasons for the slow development of immunity

antigenic diversity
host inadequate response + poor memory of immunity

14

Which cells are the targets of acquired malarial immunity?

sporozoites + merozoites
infected hepatocytes + RBC

15

T/F immunity against infected hepatocytes is relatively effective

False, because of the low parasite load and short duration of infection, the immunity is not very good

16

Is RBC a good target of malarial immunity?

Yes, but in the right balance. CD4 immunity is not viable because RBCs lack MHC molecules, so immunity relies on the right amount of cytokines

Enough = protection
Too much = severe disease

17

How do we generate antibodies to merozoites?

infected RBCs will display proteins that activate complement system/opsonisation and enhances phagocytosis

However, passive transfer of antibodies needs to occur for this protection

18

What's the main issue associated with immunity against merozoities?

too many proteins on the surface for specific response