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Flashcards in Immunisation Deck (19):
1

What are some evidence showing that vaccines work?

eradication of smallpox
measles reduced to 99.99% in countries with vaccine
Hib almost eradicated

2

What is passive immunisation

inject either antibodies or immune cells to fight against diseases

3

Where does pooled immunoglobulin come from?

using plasma, the waste product of transfusion to derive antibodies

4

What is an example of hyperimmune type immunoglobulin

Tetanus antibody - we use Eliza to find people with high titre of tetanus and make the hyperimmune globulin

5

The immunising agent against adenovirus is unattenuated. How does it work?

Take the respiratory adenovirus by mouth, which is not going to give enteric symptoms, but it will create immunity against both resp and enteric adenovirus

6

How do we empirically attenuate a vaccine?

grow the pathogen in an unfavourable medium, so it'll eventually mutate to a form that grows

7

Why do we put a marker on the cholera vaccine?

for legal purposes, so when things go wrong, people can prove that it's not their vaccine

8

How are rotavirus and influenza virus similar?

similar appearance
segmented genome

9

What are some examples of inactivated viral vaccines?

polio, influenza, HepA, rabies

10

What are some examples of inactivated bacterial vaccines?

cholera, typhoid, pertussis, Q fever

11

What are some examples of component viral vaccines?

Hep B
HPV

12

T/F Current cholera vaccine is a component vaccine

True, it targets only the B subunits (although efficacy is similar for combined A + B)

13

Vi polysaccharide is specific for which organism?

Salmonella typhi

14

What are the advantanges of using living vaccines?

broader immune response, as sometimes we only take out the virulence factor

local immunity, for polio

15

What are the disadvantages of using living vaccines

Back mutation, spread to immune-deficient people

vaccine failure

16

Why do we delay the administration of measles vaccine?

All adults have measles antibody, and babies get it from the mother, which can neutralise the vaccine if it's injected too early

17

What is an example of viral interference

Polio vaccine may stop response from the coxsackievirus virus

18

T/F Killed vaccine is stable and safe for immune deficient individuals

True

19

What are the disadvantages of using killed vaccines?

weaker response
high dose needed
need adjuvants
expensive