Flashcards in Immunisation Deck (19):
What are some evidence showing that vaccines work?
eradication of smallpox
measles reduced to 99.99% in countries with vaccine
Hib almost eradicated
What is passive immunisation
inject either antibodies or immune cells to fight against diseases
Where does pooled immunoglobulin come from?
using plasma, the waste product of transfusion to derive antibodies
What is an example of hyperimmune type immunoglobulin
Tetanus antibody - we use Eliza to find people with high titre of tetanus and make the hyperimmune globulin
The immunising agent against adenovirus is unattenuated. How does it work?
Take the respiratory adenovirus by mouth, which is not going to give enteric symptoms, but it will create immunity against both resp and enteric adenovirus
How do we empirically attenuate a vaccine?
grow the pathogen in an unfavourable medium, so it'll eventually mutate to a form that grows
Why do we put a marker on the cholera vaccine?
for legal purposes, so when things go wrong, people can prove that it's not their vaccine
How are rotavirus and influenza virus similar?
What are some examples of inactivated viral vaccines?
polio, influenza, HepA, rabies
What are some examples of inactivated bacterial vaccines?
cholera, typhoid, pertussis, Q fever
What are some examples of component viral vaccines?
T/F Current cholera vaccine is a component vaccine
True, it targets only the B subunits (although efficacy is similar for combined A + B)
Vi polysaccharide is specific for which organism?
What are the advantanges of using living vaccines?
broader immune response, as sometimes we only take out the virulence factor
local immunity, for polio
What are the disadvantages of using living vaccines
Back mutation, spread to immune-deficient people
Why do we delay the administration of measles vaccine?
All adults have measles antibody, and babies get it from the mother, which can neutralise the vaccine if it's injected too early
What is an example of viral interference
Polio vaccine may stop response from the coxsackievirus virus
T/F Killed vaccine is stable and safe for immune deficient individuals