Knee Joint Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Knee Joint > Flashcards

Flashcards in Knee Joint Deck (82):
1

Posterior Cruciate Ligament

-arises from posterior intracondyle area of tibia and inserts laterl surface of medial femoral condyle
-shorter, straighter and stronfer than ACL

2

Action of PCL

prevents backward sliding of tibia on femur (anterior displacement of femur on tibia)

3

When is the PCL taut?

taut during flexion of knee and lax during extension

4

Anterior Cruciate Ligament

Arises from anterior intracondylar area of tibia and inserts into medial surface of lateral femoral condyle

5

ACL prevents:

Prevents forward sliding of tibia on femur (or posterior displacement of femur on tibia)

6

When is ACL taut/lax?

Taut during extension of knee and lax during flexion of knee

7

When can the ACL be torn?

when knee is hyperextended

8

Lateral (Fibular) collateral ligament:

separated from lateral meniscus by tendon of popliteus tenon

9

Function of Lateral (fibular) collateral ligament:

limits adduction of leg at knee

10

Medial (tibial) collateral ligament

firmly attached to medial mensicus

11

Function of medial (tibial) collateral ligment

prevents abduction of the leg at the knee

12

MCL supports knee against:

valgus force and offers resistance to both internal and external rotation

13

LCL limits:

varus force not affected by rotation

14

Shape of medial menicus

C-shaped

15

Shape of lateral meniscus

almost circular

16

Purpose of menisci:

Act as cushion or shock absorber and facilitates lubrication of articular surfaces

17

What binds the anterior horns of mensici:

transverse ligament

18

Patellar Ligament:

continuation of quadriceps tendon

19

Function of fibrocartilage menisci:

cushion/shock absorption

20

What is in popliteal fossa?

popliteal vein
popliteal artery
tibial nerve

21

Where does the sciatic nerve bifurcate?

popliteal fossa

22

Tibialis anterior origin

Lateral condyle of tibia, proximal 1/2 - 2/3 or lateral surface of tibial shaft, interosseous membrane, and the deep surface of the fascia cruris

23

Tibialis anterior insertion

Medial and plantar surfaces of 1st cuneiform and on base of first metatarsal

24

Tibialis anterior action

Dorsiflexor of ankle and invertor of foot

25

Tibialis anterior innervation

deep peroneal nerve (L4,L5,S1)

26

Extensor Digitorum Longus origin

Lateral condyle of fibula, upper 2/3 - 3/4 of medial fibular shaft surface, upper part of interosseous membrane, fascia cruris, and anterior intermuscular septum

27

Extensor Digitorum Longus insertion:

Splits into 4 tendon slips after inferior extensor retinaculum, each of which insert on dorsum of middle and distal phalanges as part of extensor expansion complex

28

Extensor Digitorum Longus action

extend toes 2-5 and dorsiflexes ankle

29

Extensor Hallucis Longus origin

Anterior surface of the fibula and the adjacent interosseous membrane

30

Extensor Hallucis Longus insertion

Base and dorsal center of distal phalanx of great toe

31

Extensor Hallucis Longus action

Extends great toe and dorsiflexes ankle

32

Extensor Hallucis Longus innervation

Deep peroneal nerve (L4,L5,S1)

33

Gastronemius origin

Medial head from posterior nonarticular surface of medial femoral condyle; Lateral head from lateral surface of femoral lateral condyle

34

Gastronemius insertion

calcaneal tuberosity

35

Gastronemius action

Powerful plantar flexor of ankle and flexion of the knee, concentric contraction; extension of knee

36

Gastronemius innervation

Tibial nerve (S1,S2)

37

Soleus origin

Posterior aspect of fibular head, upper 1/4 - 1/3 of posterior surface of fibula, middle 1/3 of medial border of tibial shaft, and from posterior surface of a tendinous arch spanning the two sites of bone origin

38

Soleus insertion

calcaneal tuberosity

39

Soleus action


Powerful plantar flexor of ankle

40

Soleus innervation

tibial nerve (S1,S2)

41

Plantaris origin

Inferior aspect of lateral supracondylar line of distal femur

42

Plantaris insertion

Middle 1/3 of the posterior calcaneal surface, just medial to Achilles tendon

43

Plantaris action

Plantar flexor of ankle; also flexes knee

44

Plantaris innervation

tibial nerve (L5,S1,S2)

45

Tibialis Posterior origin

Posterior aspect of interosseous membrane, superior 2/3 of medial posterior surface of fibula, superior aspect of posterior surface of tibia, and from intermuscular septum between muscles of posterior compartment and deep transverse septum

46

Tibialis Posterior insertion

Splits into two slips after passing inferior to plantar calcaneonavicular ligament; superficial slip inserts on the tuberosity of the navicular bone and sometimes medial cuneiform; deeper slip divides again into slips inserting on plantar surfaces of metatarsals 2 - 4 and second cuneiform

47

Tibialis posterior action

Principal invertor of foot; also adducts foot, plantar flexes ankle, and helps to supinate the foot

48

Tibialis posterior innervation

tibial nerve (L4,L5)

49

Flexor Digitorum Longus origin

Posterior surface of tibia distal to popliteal line

50

Flexor Digitorum Longus insertion

Splits into four slips after passing through medial intermuscular septum of plantar surface of foot; these slips then insert on plantar surface of bases of 2nd - 5th distal phalanges

51

Flexor Digitorum Longus action

Flexes toes 2 - 5; also helps in plantar flexion of ankle

52

Flexor Digitorum Longus innervation

Tibial nerve (S2, S3)

53

Flexor Hallucis Longus origin

Inferior 2/3 of posterior surface of fibula, lower part of interosseous membrane

54

Flexor Hallucis Longus insertion

Plantar surface of base of distal phalanx of great toe

55

Flexor Hallucis Longus action

Flexes great toe, helps to supinate ankle, and is a very weak plantar flexor of ankle

56

Flexor Hallucis Longus innervation

Tibial nerve (S2, S3)

57

Popliteus origin

Anterior part of the popliteal groove on lateral surface of lateral femoral condyle

58

Popliteus insertion

Posterior surface of tibia in a fan-like fashion, just superior to the popliteal line

59

Popliteus action

Rotates knee medially and flexes the leg on the thigh

60

Popliteus innervation

Tibial nerve (L4, L5, S1)

61

Peroneus Tertius origin

Arises with the extensor digitorum longus from the medial fibular shaft surface and the anterior intermuscular septum (between the extensor digitorum longus and the tibialis anterior)

62

Peroneus Tertius insertion

Dorsal surface of the base of the fifth metatarsal

63

Peroneus Tertius action

Works with the extensor digitorum longus to dorsiflex, evert and abduct the foot

64

Peroneus Tertius innervation

Deep peroneal nerve (L5, S1)

65

Peroneus Brevis origin

Inferior 2/3 of lateral fibular surface; also anterior and posterior intermuscular septa of leg

66

Peroneus Brevis insertion

Lateral surface of styloid process of 5th metatarsal base

67

Peroneus Brevis action

Everts foot and plantar flexes ankle

68

Peroneus Brevis innervation

Superficial peroneal nerve (L5, S1, S2)

69

Peroneus Longus origin

Head of fibula, upper 1/2 - 2/3 of lateral fibular shaft surface; also anterior and posterior intermuscular septa of leg

70

Peroneus Longus insertion

Plantar posterolateral aspect of medial cuneiform and lateral side of 1st metatarsal base

71

Peroneus Longus action

Everts foot and plantar flexes ankle; also helps to support the transverse arch of the foot

72

Peroneus Longus innervation

Superficial peroneal nerve (L5, S1, S2); may also receive additional innervation from common or deep peroneal nerves (L5, S1, S2)

73

Small or negative Q angle

genu varum

74

Q angle greater than 17 degrees

genu valgum

75

Movement of tibiofibular joint:

moves anterior-posterior, up and down and rotates

76

Bow legs:

genu vara position, lateral weight shift, supination

77

Knock knee:

genu valga: obese, longitudinal
arch weakness, pronation

78

Hyperextended knee:

knee pulled backward

79

Tibial torsion

medial weight shift
knock-knee, flat feet, and pronation

80

Anterior compartment of leg

dorsiflexors, innervated by deep peroneal, blood supply from ant. tibial aa.

81

Lateral compartment of leg

evertors of foot, innervated by superficial peroneal nerve, blood supply from peroneal aa.

82

Posterior compartment of leg

plantar flexors, innervated by tibial nerve, blood supply from posterior tibial aa.