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Flashcards in Pathologies Deck (71):
1

in an anterior dislocation of the humerus, the shoulder is rotated

laterally/external

2

The end of the spinal cord is at this level

L2

3

You are observing a 10-year-old childs posture. You notice that the right shoulder is adducted and internally rotated. What is the nerve roots involved

C5 and C6

4

During a triathlon biking accident, a rider fell and landed with the handle bar of her bike forced upward into her right axilla. Subsequently while swimming in another triathlon event she found that her right arm tired so badly during the swimming portion that she could barely finish the event. During examination, it was found that movements involving adduction, medial rotation and extension of her arm were particularly weak and affected her swimming stroke. The nerve injured was the

Thoracodorsal

5

Interruption of the median nerve in the cubital fossa affects what movement(s) of the thumb

flexion and opposition

6

A patient is severely limited in extension at the wrist joint after several months in a cast following a Colles' fracture. Which joint would be especially important in therapy to regain full extension?

radiocarpal

7

If the tendon of palmaris longus were transected, what movement would be affected

flexion of wrist

8

The pulse of the radial artery at the wrist is felt immediately lateral to which tendon?

abductor pollicis longus

9

If the medial epicondyle of the humerus is fractured and the nerve passing dorsal to it is injured, what movement would be most affected?

ulnar deviation

10

In a Colles' fracture, the distal fragment of the radius moves

posterior

11

The carpal tunnel has ___ structures

10

12

The lower limbs get their blood supply from the

external iliac artery, femoral artery, tibial artery

13

What two nerves come off the posterior cord of the brachial plexus?

axillary and radial

14

Bishops hand is associated with the following movement pathology

can't flex lateral three fingers

15

The function of lumbricales is to

flex metacarpophalangeal joint and extend interphalangeal join

16

In an anterior dislocation of the shoulder, the muscle that most affected is

infraspinatus and teres minor are weak

17

In a posterior dislocation, the muscle that most affected is

Subscapularis is weak

18

In a SLAP pathology, the following muscle may be injured

long head of the biceps

19

The Bankart lesion may happen due to______dislocation of the humeral head

anterior-inferior

20

A football player receives a blow to the posterior arm and fractures the middle of the humerus bone. What nerve may be paralyzed?

radial

21

The two muscles that are involved in the lateral epicondylitis are

extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis

22

The nerve supply for the muscle that inserts into the lesser tubercle of the humerus is the

upper and lower subscapular nerves

23

The nerve roots for long thoracic nerve are the following

C5 C6 C7

24

A patient complaining of pain on the outer aspect of the arm and forearm down the thumb would be expected to have involvement of the following spinal segment

C6

25

The triceps brachii reflex is a test for which spinal segment?

C7

26

In a Colle's fracture the most affected muscle is the following

brachioradialis

27

Medial epicondylitis "golfer's elbow", what muscles are inflammed?

pronator teres and the flexor carpi radialis

28

Dupuytren’s contracture

-progressive shortening, thickening and fibrosis of palmar fascia and aponeurosis
-pulls 4th and 5th fingers into partial flexion at the MCP and PIP joints
-palmaris longus muscle (contracting)

29

Mallet finger

unable to extend DIP joint/forced flexion of DIP

30

Swan neck deformity

hyperextension of PIP and
flexion of DIP

31

Boutonniere deformity

flexion of PIP joints and
hyperextension of MCP and DIP

32

Where is a SLAP lesion?

10 and 2

33

Where is a Bankart lesion?

3 and 6

34

De quervain tenosynovitis

inflammation of abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis

35

Nursemaid's elbow

radial head pulled out of annular ligament

36

Posterior elbow dislocation

-olcranon process goes posteriorly and superiorly
-forearm forward and elbow back
-results from hyperextension or blow that drives ulna posterior-lateral

37

Rotator Cuff Injury

4 rotator cuff muscles
almost always includes supraspinatus muscle

38

Where is weak in an inferior dislocation?

supraspinatus

39

Where is a shoulder separation?

AC joint

40

Smith's fracture

-falling on dorsal side on hand
-distal portion goes palmar/anterior
-rest of radius goes dorsal

41

Hill-Sachs lesion

humeral head fracture

42

Klumpke's paralysis

-C8 and T1
-claw hand
-wrist flexion C8

43

Erb's Palsy

-C5, C6
-cannot abduction or flexion at eblow
-looks adducted and internally rotated

44

Drop wrist

-radial nerve dysfunction
-wrist extensors affected

45

Ape hand

-thenar muscles are affected
-medial nerve is affected

46

Claw hand

-ulnar nerve dysfunction
-cannot go into flexion
muscles: lumbricles/interosseous
extension of IP cannot happen

47

Bishop's hand

-cannot go into flexion
-muscles: flexor pollicis longus, flexor digitorum profundus, flexor digitorum superficialis
-median nerve

48

Dupuytren’s contracture

-progressive shortening, thickening and fibrosis of palmar fascia and aponeurosis
-pulls 4th and 5th fingers into partial flexion at the MCP and PIP joints
-palmaris longus muscle (contracting)

49

Fracture to the clavicle

-weakest part is the middle and lateral two thirds
-after a fracture, the sternocleidomastoid elevates the medial fragment
-trapezius is unable to hold lateral fragment up, and due to the weight of the upper limb, the shoulder drops

50

Triangle of Ausculation

-superior border of lats, medial border of scapula, and inferolateral border of trapezius: posterior examination of the lungs

51

Injury to Surgical neck of humerus:

axillary nerve

52

Injury to radial groove

radial nerve

53

Injury to distal end of humerus

median nerve

54

Injury to medial epicondyle

ulnar nerve

55

What are the borders of the deltopectoral triangle?

The deltopectoral triangle is a triangular space bounded by the lateral border of the pectoralis major muscle, medial border of the deltoid muscle, and clavicle.

56

Clavipectoral Fascia

-pierced by cephalic vein, thoracromial artery and lateral pectoral nerve

57

Suprascapular foramen

-suprascapular notch and suprascapular artery (airforce over navy)

58

Quadrangular Space

1. capsule of shoulder joint
2. surgical neck of humerus
3. long head of triceps
4. superior border of teres major
-posterior circumflex artery and axillary nerve

59

Triangular Space

1. superior borders of teres major
2. inferior border of teres minor
3. long head of triceps
-circumflex scapular artery

60

Triangular Interval

1. Lateral border of long head of triceps
2. shaft of humerus
3. inferior margin of teres major
Profunda brachii artery and radial nerve

61

Biceps tendon reflex

C5

62

Triceps tendon reflex

C7

63

Brachioradialis tendon

C6

64

Annular ligament resists

distraction

65

MCL resists

valgus

66

LCL resists

varus

67

RCL resists

medial movement of the arm

68

Elbow joint is what kind of joint?

hinge

69

Proximal radioulnar joint is:

pivot-type of synovial joint

70

What are the muscles of the snuff box?

A=extensor pollis longus
C=extensor pollis brevis
B= abductor pollis longus

71

What ligament is ruptured in a shoulder seperation?

Coracoclavicular Ligament