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Anatomy > Neck > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neck Deck (94):
1

Anterior longitudinal ligament

Reinforces anterior discs, limits extension

2

Posterior longitudinal ligament

Reinforces posterior discs, limits flexion

3

Ligamentum nuchae = supraspinous ligament

Thicker than in thoracic/lumbar regions
Limits flexion

4

Interspinous/intertransverse ligaments

Limit flexion and rotation/limits lateral flexion

5

Ligamentum flavum

Attach lamina of one vertebrae to another, reinforces articular facets
Limits flexion and rotation

6

Whiplash

flexion on extension injury

7

Platysma

- Extends over front and side of neck
- Originates from subcutaneous tissue over the pectoralis major and deltoid and inserts on the lower border of the mandible and muscles around the mouth
- Depresses lower jaw and lip and angle of mouth, wrinkles skin of neck

8

External Jugular Veins

- Formed by joining of posterior auricular vein and retromandibular vein
- Inferior course, superficial to sternocleidomastoid
- Drain into subclavian vein

9

Anterior Jugular Veins

Drain anterior aspect of neck
Drain into subclavian vein

10

Anterolateral Neck Muscles

Sternocleidomastoid

11

Posterior Neck Muscles

Semispinalis capitis, Splenius capitis, Trapezius

12

Sternocleidomastoid Muscle

- divides neck into anterior and posterior triangles
-sternal & clavicular head insert onto mastoid process

13

Sternocleidomastoid Muscle innervation

Innervation is spinal accessory nerve (CN XI)

14

Sternocleidomastoid Muscle action

- Acting together, muscles flex cervical part of vertebral column
- Contraction of one muscle pulls ear down to tip of shoulder on same side and rotates head so that face looks upward to the opposite side

15

Bony and Cartilagenous Contents

-hyoid bone (C3 level)
-thyroid cartilage (C3/C4 level)
-cricoid cartilage (C5/C level)
-thyrohoid membrane
-cricothyroid membrane

16

Throhyoid membrane

Between hyoid bone and thyroid cartilage

17

Cricothyroid membrane

Between thyroid cartilage and cricoid cartilage

18

Larynx

Organ of voice production and part of respiratory tract between lower part of pharynx and trachea

19

Cartilages of larynx

thyroid cartilage
cricoid cartilage
epiglottis

20

Goiter

-enlargement of thryoid gland
-can compress structures such as: trachea, larynx and esophagus
-iodine deficiency
-treated with radioactive iodine

21

Part I of subclavian artery

vertebral artery
internal thoracic artery
thyrocervical trunk

22

Part II of subclavian arterty

costcocervical trunk

23

Part III of subclavian trunk

suprascapular artery

24

Anterior triangle boundaries

-anterior border of SCM
-midline of neck
-inferior border of manible
-roof=platysma and investing layer of deep cervical fascia

25

Stylohyoid muscle

styloid process to hyoid

26

Stylohyoid muscle innervation

CN VII

27

Stylohyoid muscle action

Elevates and retracts hyoid during swallowing; elongates floor of mouth

28

Digastric muscle

mandible to mastoid

29

Digastric muscle innervation

CN V3 and CN VIII

30

Digastric muscle action

Depresses mandible against resistance or elevates hyoid bone during swallowing or eating

31

Suprahyoid muscles

-stylohyoid
-digastric
-mylohyoid
-geniohyoid

32

Infrahyoid muscles

-omohyoid
-sternohyoid
-throhyoid
-sternothyroid

33

Omohyoid muscle

superior border of scapula to hyoid
-has 2 bellies connected by intermediate tendon attached to clavicle by fibrous sling

34

Omohyoid muscle innervation

C1-C3 ansa cervicalis

35

Omohyoid action

depresses and fixes hyoid

36

Sternohyoid muscle

manubrium and medial clavicle to hyoid bone

37

Sternohyoid innervation

C1-C3 ansa cervicalis

38

Sternohyoid action

depresses hyoid after elevation during swallowing

39

Thyrohyoid muscle

oblique line of thyroid cartilage to hyoid bone

40

Thyrohyoid innervation

C1 via XII

41

Thyrohyoid action

depresses hyoid and elevates larynx

42

Sternothyroid muscle

posterior manubrium to oblique line of thyroid cartilage

43

Sternothyroid innervation

C-C3 ansa cervicalis

44

Sternothyroid action

depresses hyoid and larync

45

Anterior common cartoid arteries

-bifurcate at upper border of thyroid cartilage (C4 level)
-internal carotid
-external carotid

46

Internal Carotid

no branches in neck and ascends and enters cranium through carotid canal to supply brain

47

External Carotid

supplies most structures external to the cranium including: structures in neck, face, scalp, tongue and maxilla

48

Anterior triangle veins

Tributaries of Internal Jugular Vein (IJV)
IJV leaves anterior triangle by passing deep to SCM muscle

49

Anterior triangle nerves

transverse cervical nerve (C2 and C3)
hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)

50

transverse cervical nerve

skin over anterior cervical region

51

hypoglossal nerve

motor nerve of tongue
enters submandibular triangle deep to posterior belly of digastric muscle

52

Posterior triangle border

SCM
trapezius
clavicle

53

Floor of posterior triangle

prevertebral fascia covering:
1. splenius capitis
2. levator scapulae
3. middle scalene
4. posterior scalene

54

Roof of posterior triangle

platysma and deep cervical fascia

55

Nerves of posterior triangle

-spinal accessory (CN XI)
-roots of brachail plexus (C5-T1)
-cervical plexus (C1-C4)

56

Ansa cervicalis (C1,C2,C3)

innervates strap muscles (omohyoid, sternohyoid muscles)

57

Phrenic Nerve (C3-C5)

-mainly C4
-motor to diaphragm and sensory to central part

58

Anterior vertebral muscles

-longus colli
-longus capitis
- rectus capitis anterior
-anterior scalene

59

Longus colli attachments

runs between cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae

60

Longus colli innervation

anterior rami C2-C6

61

Longus colli action

flexes neck

62

Longus capitis attachments

from occipital bone to transverse processes C3-C6

63

longus capitis innervation

anterior rami C1-C3

64

longus capitis action

flexes head

65

Rectus capitis anterior attachments

base of cranium to C1

66

rectus capitis anterior innervation

C1 and C2 spinal nerves

67

rectus capitis anterior action

flexes head

68

anterior scalene attachments

transverse processes C3-C6 to first rib

69

Anterior scalene innervation

C4-C6 spinal nerves

70

Anterior scalene actions

flexes head

71

Lateral vertebral muscles

-rectus capitis lateralis
-middle scalene
-posterior scalene
-splenius capitus
-levator scapulae

72

Rectus capitis lateralis attachments

occipital bone to transverse process C1

73

Rectus capitis lateralis innervation

C1 and C2

74

Rectus capitis lateralis actions

flexes head and stabilization

75

Middle scalene attachments

transverse processes of C2-C7 to first rib

76

Middle scalene innervation

anterior rami of cervical spinal nerves

77

Middle scalene actions

Flexes neck laterally; elevates first rib during forced inspiration

78

Posterior scalene attachments

transverse processes of C5-C7 to second rib

79

Posterior scalene innervation

anterior rami of cervical spinal nerves

80

Posterior scalene action

Flexes neck laterally; elevates second rib during forced inspiration

81

Splenius Capitus attachments

Inferior nuchal ligament and spinous processes of T1-T6 to mastoid process and lateral nuchal line

82

Splenius Capitus Innervation

posterior rami of middle cervical spinal nerves

83

Splenius Capitus actions

Unilateral: Laterally flexes and rotates head and neck to same side
Bilaterally: extends head and neck

84

Levator Scapulae attachments

Transverse processes of C2-C6 to superior part of medial border of scapula

85

Levator Scapulae innervation

dorsal scapular nerve C5

86

Levator scapulae action

elevates scapula

87

Vagus Nerve (CN X)

-descend through neck in carotid sheath & posterior to sternoclavicular joint to enter thoracic cavity

88

Phrenic Nerve (C4-C5)

-formed at lateral border of anterior scalene muscle
-descend between subclavian arteries and veins to enter thorax on each side of mediastinum

89

Mylohyoid muscle

mandible to body of hyoid

90

Mylohyoid action

Elevates hyoid, floor of mouth and tongue during swallowing and speaking

91

Mylohyoid innervation

CN V3

92

Geniohyoid muscle

mandible to hyoid

93

Geniohyoid action

Pulls hyoid anterosuperiorly; shortens floor of mouth; widens pharynx

94

Geniohyoid innervation

C1 via CN XII